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Table 3 The distribution of maternal and neonatal characteristics by different levels of postpartum hemorrhage in the sample stratified by parity

From: Differential effects of different delivery methods on progression to severe postpartum hemorrhage between Chinese nulliparous and multiparous women: a retrospective cohort study

Variables Nulliparous p -valuesa Multiparous p-valuea
<900 ml 900-1499 ml 1500-2100 ml >2100 ml <900 ml 900-1499 ml 1500-2100 ml >2100 ml
L0 L1 L2 L3 L0 L1 L2 L3
N = 108,606(%) N = 3638(%) N = 480(%) N = 183(%) N = 37,689(%) N = 635(%) N = 75(%) N = 27(%)
Delivery method      <0.01      <0.01
 Cesarean section 47,957 (44.16)# 2095 (57.59) 359 (74.80) 132 (72.13)   9947 (26.39) 423 (66.62) 55 (73.33) 19 (70.37)  
 VD- Episiotomy 12,440 (11.45) 493 (13.55) 23(4.79) 5(2.73)   10,091 (26.77) 84 (13.23) 7(9.33) 2(7.41)  
 VD- Forceps-assisted 622(0.57) 22(0.60) 5(1.04) 1(0.55)   98(0.26) 8(1.26) 0(0.00) 1(3.70)  
 VD- Vacuum-assisted 223(0.21) 7(0.19) 0(0.00) 0(0.00)   55(0.15) 1(0.16) 0(0.00) 0(0.00)  
 SVD without instrumentsb 47,364 (43.61) 1021 (28.06) 93 (19.38) 45 (24.59)   17,498 (46.43) 119 (18.74) 13 (17.33) 5 (18.52)  
Placenta previa 1515(1.39) 243(6.68) 55 (11.46) 20 (10.93) <0.01 219(0.58) 53(8.35) 14 (18.67) 9 (33.33) <0.01
Placenta accreta 54(0.05) 23(0.63) 6(1.25) 9(4.92) <0.01 2(0.01) 2(0.31) 3(4.00) 3 (11.11) <0.01
Placental abruption 997(0.92) 132(3.63) 26(5.42) 12(6.56) <0.01 145(0.38) 16(2.52) 3(4.00) 3 (11.11) <0.01
Placental retention 453(0.42) 60(1.65) 17(3.54) 11(6.01) <0.01 90(0.24) 17(2.68) 6(8.00) 2(7.41) <0.01
Uterine inertia c 3318(3.06) 257(7.06) 41(8.54) 23 (12.57) <0.01 414(1.10) 41(6.46) 6(8.00) 5 (18.52) <0.01
Vertex malposition 2891(2.66) 101(2.78) 11(2.29) 4(2.19) 0.9 91(0.24) 7(1.10) 0(0.00) 0(0.00) <0.01
Respiratory disease 325(0.30) 33(0.91) 7(1.46) 9(4.92) <0.01 39(0.10) 4(0.63) 0(0.00) 1(3.70) <0.01
Hepatopathy 2303(2.12) 649 (17.84) 19(3.96) 16(9.84) <0.01 527(1.40) 19(2.99) 1(1.33) 1(3.70) <0.01
Nephropathy 575(0.53) 45(1.24) 9(1.88) 12(6.56) <0.01 44 (0.12) 2(0.31) 0(0.00) 3 (11.11) <0.01
Rhesus hemolytic disease 231(0.21) 40(1.10) 6(1.25) 0(0.00) <0.01 47(0.12) 5 (0.79) 1(1.33) 0(0.00) <0.01
Severe coagulopathy 24(0.02) 14(0.38) 8(1.67) 18(9.84) <0.01 2(0.01) 0(0.00) 0(0.00) 2(7.41) <0.01
Preeclampsia 5992(5.52) 448 (12.32) 83 (17.29) 28 (15.30) <0.01 818(2.17) 60(9.45) 9 (12.00) 3 (11.11) <0.01
  1. Note: #The percentage is the proportion of the row total. The percentages are compared vertically, not horizontally. SVD, spontaneous vaginal delivery. a p-value derived from the chi-square test; b Reference group. c Including psychological and anesthetic factors and excluding the uterine inertia cases that cause by the other factors mentioned in our model already