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Table 3 Stress, depression, anxiety, satisfaction, self-efficacy, and bonding mean scores for partners in intervention and control group over time (mean; standard deviation), and p-values for group differences at T3 and T4

From: Effectiveness of a psycho-educational intervention for expecting parents to prevent postpartum parenting stress, depression and anxiety: a randomized controlled trial

  T0 (26–34 weeks pregnant) T1 (34–36 weeks pregnant) T3 (6 weeks after birth) T4 (10 weeks after birth) p-value
T3
p-value
T4
Primary outcome
Stress
 Intervention 25.38 (6.74) 26.55 (6.58) 38.82 (3.27) 28.66 (9.66) .61 .59
 Control 24.49 (7.08) 25.67 (6.67) 38.54 (4.35) 27.36 (9.56)
Secondary outcomes
Depression
 Intervention 3.62 (3.20) 2.70 (3.07) 2.93 (2.62) 3.21 (3.67) .38 .54
 Control 3.93 (2.56) 3.00 (2.29) 3.66 (3.61) 3.75 (3.40)
Anxiety
 Intervention 6.24 (3.26) 5.48 (2.86) 5.25 (2.07) 5.55 (3.11) .73 .96
 Control 5.79 (2.28) 5.86 (2.60) 5.49 (3.02) 5.58 (2.35)
Satisfaction
 Intervention 36.76 (5.42) 36.68 (6.11) 28.61 (7.26) 38.86 (3.29) .78 .58
 Control 37.67 (3.22) 37.72 (3.48) 27.60 (7.99) 38.36 (3.48)
Self-efficacy
 Intervention 4.11 (.65) 4.22 (.62) 4.11 (.57) 4.00 (.71) .27 .60
 Control 4.02 (.56) 4.22 (.59) 3.94 (.59) 3.92 (.55)
Sleep quality
 Intervention n/a n/a 2.75 (.59) 2.93 (.66) .22 .18
 Control n/a n/a 2.54 (.70) 2.69 (.71)
Sleep quantity
 Intervention n/a n/a 2.64 (.68) 2.86 (.85) .39 .42
 Control n/a n/a 2.49 (.74) 2.69 (.75)
Parent-infant bonding
 Intervention n/a n/a n/a 64.46 (6.42) n/a .73
 Control n/a n/a n/a 63.78 (6.73)