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Table 2 Stress, depression, anxiety, satisfaction, self-efficacy and bonding mean scores for mothers in intervention and control group over time (mean; standard deviation), and p-values for group differences at T3 and T4

From: Effectiveness of a psycho-educational intervention for expecting parents to prevent postpartum parenting stress, depression and anxiety: a randomized controlled trial

  T0 (26–34 weeks pregnant) T1 (34–36 weeks pregnant) T3 (6 weeks after birth) T4 (10 weeks after birth) p-value*
T3
p- value*
T4
Primary outcome
Stress
 Intervention 32.97 (6.75) 32.91 (7.15) 39.03 (3.08) 32.42 (8.43) .72 .22
 Control 33.01 (6.25) 32.73 (6.92) 38.59 (3.48) 30.59 (7.57)
Secondary outcomes
Depression
 Intervention 4.48 (3.08) 4.44 (3.60) 5.53 (4.02) 4.82 (4.20) .86 .59
 Control 4.86 (3.83) 3.87 (2.60) 5.67 (4.40) 4.44 (3.34)
Anxiety
 Intervention 5.10 (2.10) 5.59 (2.29) 5.69 (2.53) 5.64 (2.77) .47 .78
 Control 5.35 (2.14) 5.05 (1.93) 6.05 (2.83) 5.50 (2.56)
Satisfaction
 Intervention 38.39 (3.52) 38.82 (3.67) 32.84 (8.61) 39.40 (2.41) .46 .71
 Control 38.32 (3.41) 38.93 (3.25) 32.31 (7.33) 39.21 (2.91)
Parental self-efficacy
 Intervention 3.94 (.52) 4.05 (.45) 3.88 (.65) 3.98 (.53) .68 .99
 Control 3.87 (.54) 3.98 (.53) 3.83 (.70) 3.98 (.53)
Sleep quality
 Intervention n/a n/a 2.41 (.70) 2.58 (.74) .15 .68
 Control n/a n/a 2.59 (.56) 2.73 (.61)
Sleep quantity
 Intervention n/a n/a 2.41 (.70) 2.58 (.74) .70 .23
 Control n/a n/a 2.59 (.56) 2.73 (.61)
Parent-infant bonding
 Intervention n/a n/a n/a 66.15 (6.02) n/a .83
 Control n/a n/a n/a 66.55 (5.18)