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Table 1 Characteristics of women observed in labour and delivery wards, EN-BIRTH study (n = 12,837)

From: Chlorhexidine for facility-based umbilical cord care: EN-BIRTH multi-country validation study

  Bangladesh Bangladesh Nepal All sites
Azimpur Tertiary Kushtia District Pokhara Regional
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
A). Total newborns who were observed (Denominator) 2936 2459 7442 12837
Birth outcome - Live Birth 2896 (98·6) 2308 (93·9) 7175 (96·4) 12379 (96.4)
Newborn condition at L&D discharge
  Alive 2895 (98.6) 2302 (93.6) 7171 (96.4) 12368 (96.3)
  Stillbirths 11 (0.4) 74 (3) 126 (1.7) 211 (1.6)
  Neonatal death 1 (0) 6 (0.2) 4 (0.1) 11 (0.1)
  Baby not delivered 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 6 (0.1) 10 (0.1)
  Birth outcome not observed 27 (0.9) 75 (3.1) 135 (1.8) 237 (1.8)
Mode of birth
  Normal vaginal birth 767 (26.4) 1364 (56.6) 5840 (79.2) 7971 (62.8)
  Vaginal breech/ Vacuum/ Forceps 1 (0) 0 (0) 349 (4.7) 350 (2.8)
  Caesarean Section 2119 (72.8) 972 (40.3) 1140 (15.5) 4231 (33.3)
  Not observed 23 (0.8) 76 (3.2) 41 (0.6) 140 (1.1)
Birthweight of baby <2500 g 353 (11.9) 473 (19.3) 897 (12.1) 1723 (13.4)
Sex Female/Girl baby 1427 (49) 1128 (46.8) 3335 (45.3) 5890 (46.4)
B). Total women who were observed 2910 2412 7370 12692
Women’s Agea
  <18 years 25 (0.9) 3 (0.1) 311 (4.2) 339 (2.7)
  18-19 years 475 (16.3) 197 (8.2) 817 (11.1) 1489 (11.7)
  20-24 years 1158 (39.8) 954 (39.6) 3080 (41.8) 5192 (40.9)
  25-29 years 867 (29.8) 736 (30.5) 2114 (28.7) 3717 (29.3)
  30-34 years 297 (10.2) 373 (15.5) 827 (11.2) 1497 (11.8)
  35+ years 88 (3) 149 (6.2) 221 (3) 458 (3.6)
  Mean (SD) 23.9 (4.5) 24.9 (4.9) 24.2 (4.7) 24.3 (4.7)
Women’s educationa
  No education 39 (1.3) 77 (3.2) 268 (3.6) 384 (3)
  Primary incomplete 111 (3.8) 127 (5.3) 252 (3.4) 490 (3.9)
  Primary complete 339 (11.6) 347 (14.4) 302 (4.1) 988 (7.8)
  Secondary incomplete 985 (33.8) 954 (39.6) 1637 (22.2) 3576 (28.2)
  Secondary complete or higher 1273 (43.7) 870 (36.1) 4509 (61.2) 6652 (52.4)
  Missing 163 (5.6) 37 (1.5) 402 (5.5) 602 (4.7)
  Mean (SD) 8.8 (4.1) 8.2 (3.6) 9.6 (4.4) 9.1 (4.2)
  1. aData were collected from women’s registration and survey report