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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included

From: Monitoring gestational weight gain and prepregnancy BMI using the 2009 IOM guidelines in the global population: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Country Regions Years of recruitment Mean (SD) maternal age (years) Full term rate (%) n Mean (SD) GWG (kg) GWG according to 2009 IOM guidelines Mean (SD) BMI (kg/m2) Prepregnancy BMI according to WHO classification criteria
Below (%) Above (%) UW (%) NW (%) OW (%) OB (%)
Asefa et al. 2016 [28] Ethiopia Africa 2014 2014 25.2 (5.01) 82.78 411 8.96 (3.27) 69.3 2.7 22.39 (3.84) 9.5 72 14.6 3.9
Guo et al. 2015 [29] China Asia 1992 1996 23.9 (2.1) 92.8 100,612 11.7 (5) 50.6 14.5 20.3 (2) 16.5 81.2 2.3a
Abeysena et al. 2011 [30] Sri Lanka Asia 2001 2002 26.4 (5.5) NA 481 10.6 (3.3) 58.5 8.7 NA 30 51.7 16a
Munim et al. 2012 [31] Pakistan Asia 2003 2007 28.2 (4.8) 83.8 4735 8.5 (3.8) 52.4 13.5 NA 3.1 46.5 28.3 22.1
Shi et al. 2014 [32] China Asia 2006 2010 27.3 (4.2) 100 26,896 14.7 (4.6) 21.38 39.35 21 (2.9) 18.7 71.5 8.9 0.9
Radhakrishnan et al. 2014 [33] India Asia 2010 2011 27.3 (4.27) 88.03 1462 10.51 (4.46) 37.41 21.41 NA 7.18 47.06 34.54 11.22
Soltani et al. 2017 [34] Indonesia Asia 2010 2010 28.5 (5.6) NA 607 10.2 (6) 56.14 11.72 21.3 (3.5) 20.1 65.3 13.5 1.1
Li et al. 2015 [35] China Asia 2011 2011 27.38 (4.46) 100 48,867 14.47 (4.98) 25 38.2 NA 13.15 76.45 9.2 1.2
Abbasalizad et al. 2016 [36] Azerbaijan Asia 2012 2013 27.15 (5.64) NA 481 8.99 (5.87) 49.06 23.28 NA 2.5 41.16 39.92 16.42
Papazian et al. 2017 [37] Lebanon Asia 2012 2013 31.5 (4.4) 100 978 12.7 (6) 31.27 25.28 23 (3.8) 6.5 67.8 17.9 5.6
Kheirouri et al. 2017 [38] Iran Asia 2012 2014 NA NA 717 10.5 (NA) 29.43 24.41 NA 3.9 44.35 35.15 16.6
Enomoto et al. 2016 [39] Japan Asia 2013 2013 31.8 (5.38) 89.27 97,157 9.97 (3.98) 63.82 7.07 19.64 (1.27) 18.24 71.15 7.72 28.87
Liu et al. 2015 [40] China Asia 2013 2014 NA 92.5 2973 13.72 (1.84) 13.6 53.8 22.29 (3.28) 8.5 72.4 19.1 0
Thapa et al. 2017 [41] Nepal Asia 2017 2017 26.15 (4.54) 100 227 10.21 (4.18) 42.7 15 NA 5.7 57.26 27.75 9.25
Mourtakos et al. 2017 [42] Greece Europe 1988 2000 27.84 (5.5) 100 5125 14.3 (7) 31.5 34.4 NA 3.8 78.9 14.8 2.5
Waters et al. 2012 [43] UK Europe 1990 2009 27.97 (5.81) NA 439 12.21 (4.35) 19.8 48.3 28.12 (7.88) 44 22.3 33.7 0
Beyerlein et al. 2012 [44] Germany Europe 1996 2001 28.6 (4.8) NA 6783 14.3 (6.1) 27.4 37 22.6 (3.8) 6.9 74.6 13.5 5
Ferrari et al. 2014 [5] Germany Europe 2000 2012 32.5 (5.4) NA 11,678 13.3 (5.6) 27.4 36 24 (5) 5 65.8 19.1 10.2
Jacota et al. 2017 [45] France Europe 2003 2006 29.9 (4.5) NA 1045 13.3 (4.9) 24.4 31.2 23.4 (4.6) 7.9 64.7 18 9.3
Henriksson et al. 2015 [46] Sweden Europe 2007 2010 31 (4) 100 312 15 (5) 18.3 45.2 23.1 (3.3) 1.9 75.3 17.6 5.1
Walsh et al. 2014 [47] Ireland Europe 2007 2011 31.81 (4.18) 100 621 12.19 (3.73) 5.9 43 27.09 (4.95) 0.3 41.1 38 20.6
Kinnunen et al. 2016 [48] Norway Europe 2008 2010 29.89 (4.53) NA 623 13.64 (5.97) 25.2 42.22 24.46 (4.64) NA NA NA NA
Chmitorz et al. 2012 [49] Germany Europe 2009 2011 29 (4.55) 100 9824 15 (4.55) 17.68 47.1 23.5 (2.05) 4.7 69.64 18.19 7.49
Popa et al. 2014 [50] Romania Europe 2010 2010 27.53 (NA) NA 400 14.24 (6.54) 22.7 35 22.31 (3.79) 11.8 66.6 17 4.6
Przybyłowicz et al. 2014 [51] Polond Europe 2010 2012 28.1 (NA) 100 510 15.4 (5.8) 16.6 47.4 22.4 (3.9) 10.6 70.9 18.5a
Diemert et al. 2016 [52] Germany Europe 2011 2013 31 (3.5) 100 197 11.2 (3.9) 38 22 24.7 (4.6) 4 43 49 13
Heery et al. 2015 [53] Ireland Europe 2011 2011 31 (NA) NA 799 15.54 (NA) 10 62.5 23.9 (5.82) 4.4 64.7 20.5 10.4
Vila-Candel et al. 2015 [54] Spain Europe 2011 2012 NA 100 140 14.63 (4.59) 16.4 45 21.92 (1.41) 7.14 67.86 21.43 3.57
Logan et al. 2017 [55] Germany Europe 2012 2013 32.5 (1.03) 100 949 14.65 (1.14) 16.1 48.5 NA 2.9 62.7 22.2 12.2
Özdek et al. 2015 [56] Turkey Europe 2012 2013 NA 100 208 11.81 (3.77) 20.7 38.9 28.12 (NA) 9.1 61.5 20.7 8.7
Cinelli et al. 2016 [57] Italy Europe 2013 2015 33 (1.33) NA 435 13 (1) 28.5 33.1 21.9 (0.77) 6.4 71 15 7.6
Maier et al. 2016 [58] Germany Europe 2014 2014 NA NA 591 14.03 (5.7) 19 44 NA 8 62.1 17.94 11.67
Ramón-Arbués et al. 2017 [59] Spain Europe 2014 2014 30.75 (4.29) 100 301 14.02 (2.33) 8.3 8.3 23.38 (3.92) 8.97 61.46 19.93 9.6
Tulmaç et al. 2018 [60] Turkey Europe 2015 2016 NA 100 163 11.86 (7.23) 16.6 60.7 25.47 (5.05) 3.68 50.3 26.99 19.02
Margerison et al. 2010 [61] USA North America 1972 2000 26.1 (5.5) NA 4496 14.2 (6.9) 29.7 39.9 NA 7 69 16 8
Widen et al. 2015 [62] USA North America 1991 1993 26.4 (4.7) 100 156 15.6 (6.6) 16 56 24.5 (4.9) 3.9 60.3 23.7 12.2
Wander et al. 2015 [63] USA North America 1996 2008 32.6 (4.6) 100 3621 16.2 (5.7) 14 54 23.7 (5.1) NA NA NA NA
Larouche et al. 2010 [64] Canada North America 1998 2007 32.29 (4.76) NA 960 16.56 (5.4) 9.3 64.6 24.6 (4.78) 2.9 59.4 25.2 12.5
Badon et al. 2014 [65] USA/Canada North America 2000 2006 30.4 (5.67) 100 5297 15.7 (6.39) 11.6 56.5 25 (5.37) 3.4 56.9 25 14.8
Deierlein et al. 2011 [66] USA North America 2001 2005 NA 100 361 16 (5.4) 13.07 56.82 24.2 (5.6) 5.93 65.25 16.38 12.43
Polinski et al. 2017 [67] USA North America 2001 2001 NA 85 6450 12.9 (0.1) 30.2 43.6 24.09 (0.05) 4.1 55.4 25.3 15.2
Ferraro et al. 2012 [68] Canada North America 2002 2009 30 (5.1) NA 4321 16.13 (6.76) 13.1 57.63 25 (5.6) 3.9 56.2 23.7 16.2
Davis et al. 2014 [69] USA North America 2004 2008 NA 78.66 159,244 13.21 (NA) 24.96 40.78 25.51 (NA) 5.72 51.78 23.04 19.45
Fontaine et al. 2012 [70] USA North America 2004 2007 28.1 (5.3) 100 2760 13.2 (2.8) 18.91 48.26 NA 2.03 43.3 28.3 26.3
Park et al. 2011 [71] USA North America 2004 2007 NA 100 570,672 15.72 (6.94) 20.2 51.2 NA 4.9 53.5 23.8 17.8
Fuemmeler et al. 2016 [72] USA North America 2005 2011 27.96 (6.05) 89 734 14.26 (8.21) 22 56 NA 5 37 24 34
Gawade et al. 2011 [73] USA North America 2005 2008 27.38 (6.45) 100 2495 15.05 (7.34) 19.1 53.67 27.04 (6.4) 3.1 41.5 27.4 28
Kowal et al. 2011 [74] Canada North America 2005 2006 NA NA 74,523 15.8 (2.71) 18.7 48.7 NA 6.1 59.4 21 13.5
Gallagher et al. 2014 [75] USA North America 2006 2011 23.9 (4.77) NA 445 16.1 (6.2) 12 55 24.6 (5.3) 7.2 55 23 15
Simas et al. 2012 [76] USA North America 2006 2010 29 (6.1) 95.5 11,203 12.66 (3.38) 17.04 57.2 23.51 (1.7) 3.8 50.9 24.6 20.6
Pawlak et al. 2015 [77] USA North America 2007 2010 27.9 (6.1) 100 230,698 13.74 (6.53) 23.11 47.73 25.4 (5.7) 4.3 53.4 24.6 17.7
Ashley-Martin et al. 2016 [78] Canada North America 2008 2011 33 (5.17) NA 1613 15.2 (8.05) 17.8 56.5 NA 2.7 61.6 21.6 14.1
Kominiarek et al. 2017 [79] USA North America 2009 2015 23.6 (5.2) 93.78 6351 13.15 (2.62) 24.3 49.9 26.77 (6.32) 4.22 41.82 27.95 26.01
Subhan et al. 2017 [80] Canada North America 2009 2012 NA 100 513 12.43 (1.99) 10.14 49.9 NA 3 65 19 12
Starling et al. 2015 [81] USA North America 2010 2013 NA 100 826 14.3 (6.6) 21 51 25.8 (NA) 3 52 25 20
Mamun et al. 2011 [82] Australia Oceania 1981 1983 25 (5.07) 96 6632 14.8 (5.2) 25 36 NA 9.9 74.3 11.7 4.2
Blumfield et al. 2015 [83] Australia Oceania 2006 2007 29 (5.6) NA 134 13.3 (7) 26.87 40.3 NA 4.5 53 23.9 18.7
de Jersey et al. 2012 [84] Australia Oceania 2010 2011 29.9 (5.1) 100 569 13.4 (6.6) 26 38 24.3 (5.2) 5.8 60.1 21.8 11.42
Hartley et al. 2016 [85] Australia Oceania 2011 2011 32.3 (4.8) NA 256 13.65 (5.77) 20.31 41.4 25.66 (5.97) 3.9 53.9 24.2 18
Castillo et al. 2016 [86] Brazil South America 2004 2004 26.1 (6.8) NA 3757 12.4 (6.1) 30.4 33.2 24.2 (4.67) 4.8 60.9 23.3 10.9
Drehmer et al. 2010 [87] Brazil South America 2006 2007 25 (6.4) NA 667 13.9 (6.5) 25.79 44.83 24.25 (4.7) 3.9 62.1 22.2 11.8
Paulino et al. 2016 [88] Brazil South America 2013 2014 26.69 (5.01) 100 290 11.38 (5.56) 32.07 31.38 NA 4.6 54.6 26.2 14.6
Garmendia et al. 2017 [89] Chile South America 2014 2015 25.8 (6.2) 100 1654 12.9 (6.2) 23.9 43.6 26.7 (5.3) 2.2 41.3 33.8 23.6
  1. a The study reported overweight and obesity categories in one category
  2. BMI Body mass index, SD standard deviation, UW Underweight, NW Normal weight, OW Overweight, OB Obesity, NA Not Available