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Table 5 The relationship between pregnant women’s characteristic and subjective norms towards male involvement

From: Exploring factors influencing pregnant Women’s attitudes, perceived subjective norms and perceived behavior control towards male involvement in maternal services utilization: a baseline findings from a community based interventional study from Rukwa, rural Tanzania

Variables Negative subjective norms Positive subjective norms X2 p-value
Frequency Percent (%) Frequency Percent (%)
Group
 Intervention 107 19.6 75 13.7   
 Control 202 37 162 29.7 0.537 0.464
Age group
 Less than 20 57 10.40 44 8.10   
 21 to 25 93 17.00 61 11.20   
 26 to 30 60 11.00 53 9.70 4.598 0.331
 31 to 35 36 6.60 39 7.10   
 36+ 63 11.50 40 7.30   
Age at marriage
 Less than 18 154 28.20 80 14.70   
 19 to 24 128 23.40 120 22.00 16.006 < 0.001
 25 = + 27 4.90 37 6.80   
Education status
 No formal 128 23.40 66 12.10   
 Primary school 169 31.00 155 28.40 11.7 0.003
 Secondary school or higher 12 2.20 16 2.90   
Ethnic group
 Fipa 195 35.70 144 26.40   
 Mambwe 44 8.10 68 12.50 25.073 < 0.001
 Others 70 12.80 25 237   
Economic status
 Less than one dollar per day 227 41.60 158 28.90   
 At least one 82 15.00 79 14.50 2.979 0.084
Own mobile phone
 Yes 77 14.10 91 16.70   
 No 232 42.50 146 26.70 11.437 0.001
Would you like to accompany your partner to childbirth?
 No 103 18.90 40 7.30   
 Yes 206 37.70 197 36.10 18.788 < 0.001