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Table 5 Comparison of changes in energy and nutrient intake within and between groups after the interventiona

From: Evaluation of the efficacy of two doses of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic, lipidemic and oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial

Group DRIsc 1000 IU/d group
n = 37
2000 IU/d group
n = 36
p value2
Variable before after changes before after changes Time Group Time × groupb
Energy (kcal/d) ** 1792.2 ± 280.1 1892.9 ± 396.8 100.7 ± 88.78 1675.1 ± 416.3 1776.19 ± 536.58 118.32 ± 136.24 0.2 0.59 0.34
Protein (g/d) 71 70.6 ± 27 77.43 ± 20.7 6.76 ± 6.68 64.76 ± 27.31 63.05 ± 53 −1.29 ± 6.77 0.28 0.47 0.94
Carbohydrate (g/d) 175 266.81 ± 83.62 277.56 ± 72.54 10.74 ± 15.86 261.56 ± 71.08 275.63 ± 104.32 17.05 ± 26.51 0.27 0.38 0.33
Fat (g/d) *** 51.69 ± 26.23 55.8 ± 16.73 4.1 ± 5.14 43.96 ± 15.06 49.84 ± 20.14 6.28 ± 4.88 0.19 0.11 0.65
Calcium (mg/d) 1000 663.33 ± 268.9 771.67 ± 439.32 108.34 ± 72.93 593.46 ± 235.82 554.97 ± 238.3 −38.48 ± 66.06 0.29 0.006 0.17
Iron (mg/d) 27 12.56 ± 4.59 13.61 ± 5.93 1.04 ± 1.35 12.14 ± 4.42 15.73 ± 14.21 1.07 ± 1.09 0.14 0.65 0.41
Zinc (mg/d) 11 7.44 ± 4.13 8.03 ± 2.99 0.58 ± 1.03 6.29 ± 3.25 6.71 ± 3.29 0.37 ± 0.94 0.25 0.39 0.64
Vitamin A (RE/d) 770 1234.8 ± 1549.1 1097.6 ± 1958.5 − 137.1 ± 20.1 884.41 ± 713.8 1006.82 ± 940.03 217.4 ± 215.9 0.87 0.059 0.47
Vitamin D (μg) 15 0.7 ± 1.01 1.27 ± 1.45 0.57 ± 0.32 0.45 ± 1.00 0.90 ± 1.34 0.37 ± 0.36 0.03 0.23 0.81
Vitamin E (α-TE (mg/d)) 15 3.13 ± 2.52 4.78 ± 7.11 1.65 ± 1.54 3.71 ± 2.85 4.74 ± 5.25 1.15 ± 1.27 0.17 0.78 0.75
Vitamin C (mg/d) 85 135.01 ± 116.3 84.93 ± 46.87 −50.08 ± 26.7 86.02 ± 52.14 145.55 ± 100.48 4.03 ± 21.2 0.88 0.86 0.10
  1. aAll values are expressed as means±SD (standard deviation)
  2. 2Resulted from 1-factor repeated measures ANOVA
  3. bTime×Group: Time means from the first to the last visit of intervention and group means comparison between the two groups of intervention
  4. cDRIs Dietary Reference Intakes [36]
  5. **Energy requirement varies widely based on the pre-pregnancy BMI, individual energy output and basal metabolic rate
  6. ***There is no DRI for lipids during pregnancy. It is based on the energy requirements for proper weight gain