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Table 5 Crude and adjusted Odds Ratios of skilled birth attendance in urban and rural areas and women’s empowerment using logistic regression with complex sampling analysis (n = 4400)

From: Dimensions of women’s empowerment on access to skilled delivery services in Nepal

Urban (n = 2456) Rural (n = 1944)
Variables Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI) P value Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI) P value
Women’s empowerment
Socio-cultural empowerment
Highest educational level   0.000    0.000
No education 1 1   1 1  
 Primary 1.34 (0.87 to 2.05) 1.24 (0.83 to 1.87)   1.70 (1.19 to 2.43) 1.61 (1.11 to 2.31)  
 Secondary 2.24 (1.59 to 3.16) 1.70 (1.23 to 2.36)   3.27 (2.35 to 4.55) 2.51 (1.79 to 3.53)  
 Higher 4.89 (3.26 to 7.32) 2.42 (1.59 to 3.67)   4.65 (2.92 to 7.40) 2.47 (1.49 to 4.04)  
Attitude towards wife beating   0.728    0.048
 Negative attitude 1 1   1 1  
 Positive attitude 0.95 (0.76 to 1.20) 1.04 (0.82 to 1.33)   0.66 (0.50 to 0.89) 0.74 (0.54 to 1.00)  
Knowledge of property   0.929    0.713
Unknown 1 1   1 1  
Known 0.99 (0.63 to 1.55) 0.98 (0.59 to 1.61)   0.84 (0.55 to 1.29) 0.92 (0.57 to 1.47)  
Economic Empowerment
Occupation of Women    0.000    0.142
Not working 1 1   1 1  
Agriculture 0.50 (0.37 to 0.68) 0.60 (0.46 to 0.79)   0.86 (0.63 to 1.16) 0.73 (0.53 to 1.00)  
Other occupations 1.41 (0.99 to 2.01) 1.12 (0.78 to 1.60)   1.44 (0.93 to 2.25) 0.92 (0.62 to 1.39)  
Property possession    0.281    0.097
Not owned 1 1   1 1  
Owned 1.75 (1.23 to 2.50) 1.27 (0.82 to 1.95)   1.58 (1.07 to 2.36) 1.43 (0.94 to 2.19)  
Owns bank account    0.764    0.004
No 1 1   1 1  
Yes 1.50 (1.17 to 1.92) 1.04 (0.81 to 1.33)   2.05 (1.53 to 2.77) 1.59 (1.17 to 2.16)  
Empowerment on media/information technology
Media exposure    0.156    0.013
 No access 1 1   1 1  
 Medium access 1.93 (1.43 to 2.60) 1.32 (0.96 to 1.82)   1.94 (1.51 to 2.51) 1.33 (1.04 to 1.71)  
 High access 3.10 (2.15 to 4.45 1.39 (0.94 to 2.03)   3.86 (2.47 to 6.02) 1.92 (1.18 to 3.11)  
Internet use    0.000    0.001
 Never 1 1   1 1  
 Sometimes 3.35 (2.62 to 4.29) 2.02 (1.53 to 2.68)   3.44 (2.43 to 4.88) 1.88 (1.30 to 2.72)  
Familial/interpersonal Empowerment
Decision making power    0.371    0.655
 Low 1 1   1 1  
 High 1.16 (0.95 to 1.41) 0.91 (0.74 to 1.12)   1.09 (0.87 to 1.37) 0.95 (0.75 to 1.20)