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Table 3 Crude and adjusted Odds Ratios of skilled birth attendance using a logistic regression with complex sampling analysis (n = 4400)

From: Dimensions of women’s empowerment on access to skilled delivery services in Nepal

Variables Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI) P value
Confounding factors
Age    0.024
 Below 25 1 1  
 26 to 30 years 0.77 (0.63 to 0.94) 0.96 (0.73 to 1.26)  
 31 and above 0.73 (0.59 to 0.90) 1.49 (1.09 to 2.03)  
Ethnicity    0.087
Other Caste 1 1  
 Dalit 0.81 (0.57 to 1.13) 0.87 (0.59 to 1.28)  
 Janajati 0.04 (0.76 to 1.41) 0.71 (0.52 to 0.97)  
 Brhamin and Kshetri 1.37 (1.00 to 1.88) 0.90 (0.63 to 1.27)  
Type of place of residence    0.012
 Urban 1 1  
 Rural 0.50 (0.38 to 0.67) 0.70 (0.53 to 0.92)  
Ecological zone    0.099
 Mountain 1 1  
 Hill 1.70 (0.94 to 3.06) 1.05 (0.63 to 1.77)  
 Terai 1.77 (1.00 to 3.11) 1.47 (0.87 to 2.47)  
Birth order    0.000
 1 1 1  
 2–3 0.50 (0.43 to 0.57) 0.55 (0.46 to 0.66)  
 4–5 0.22 (0.17 to 0.28) 0.29 (0.21 to 0.40)  
 6+ 0.24 (0.15 to 0.37) 0.36 (0.21 to 0.61)  
Women’s empowerment
Socio-cultural empowerment
Highest educational level    0.000
 No education 1 1  
 Primary 1.54 (1.19 to 2.01) 1.33 (1.00 to 1.77)  
 Secondary 2.85 (2.23 to 3.64) 1.78 (1.39 to 2.28)  
 Higher 5.70 (4.19 to 7.74) 2.08 (1.49 to 2.88)  
Attitude towards wife beating    0.167
 Negative attitude 1 1  
 positive attitude 0.78 (0.64 to 0.94) 0.87 (0.71 to 1.06)  
Knowledge of property    0.712
 Unknown 1 1  
 Known 0.94 (0.69 to 1.27) 0.94 (0.65 to 1.34)  
Economic Empowerment
Occupation of Women    0.016
 Not working 1 1  
 Agriculture 0.63 (0.51 to 0.77) 0.78 (0.62 to 0.97)  
 Other occupations 1.57 (1.21 to 2.05) 1.16 (0.87 to 1.54)  
Property possession    0.105
 Not owned 1 1  
 Owned 1.83 (1.41 to 2.37) 1.30 (0.95 to 1.78)  
Ows bank account    0.002
 No 1 1  
 Yes 1.83 (1.51 to 2.21) 1.38 (1.13 to 1.69)  
Empowerment on media/information technology
Media exposure    0.002
 No access 1 1  
 Medium access 2.08 (1.71 to 2.54) 1.38 (1.13 to 1.69)  
 High access 3.76 (2.85 to 4.97) 1.56 (1.15 to 2.12)  
Internet use    0.000
 Never 1 1  
 Sometimes 3.78 (3.04 to 4.96) 1.77 (1.42 to 2.21)  
Familial/interpersonal Empowerment
Decision making power    0.431
 Low 1 1  
 High 1.21 (1.04 to 1.41) 1.06 (0.91 to 1.23)