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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the study population and univariable association of the exposure variables with the outcome variables

From: Dimensions of women’s empowerment on access to skilled delivery services in Nepal

Variables Weighted Frequency (%) (N = 4400) Delivery assisted by skilled Professionals (%) (N = 2353) Delivery assisted by unskilled Professionals (%) (N = 2047) P value for X2 test
Age
 Below 25 2243 (51.0) 1276 (29.0) 967 (22.0) 0.006
 26 to 30 years 1376 (31.3) 695 (15.8) 682 (15.5)
 31 and above 781 (17.8) 382 (8.7) 399 (9.1)  
Ethnicity
 Other Caste 1129 (25.7) 583 (13.3) 546 (12.4) 0.018
 Dalit 565 (12.8) 261 (5.9) 304 (6.9)
 Janajati 1445 (32.8) 759 (17.2) 686 (15.6)
 Brhamin and Kshetri 1261 (28.7) 750 (17.0) 512 (11.6)  
Type of place of residence
 Urban 2456 (53.8) 1497 (34.0) 959 (21.8) 0.000
 Rural 1944 (44.2) 856 (19.4) 1088 (24.7)
Ecological zone
 Mountain 313 (7.1) 128 (2.9) 186 (4.2) 0.131
 Hill 1728 (39.3) 931 (21.2) 979 (18.1)
 Terai 2359 (53.6) 1294 (29.4) 1065 (24.2)  
Birth order
 1 1865 (42.4) 1228 (27.9) 637 (14.5) 0.000
 2–3 1919 (43.6) 939 (21.3) 980 (22.3)
 4–5 457 (10.4) 135 (3.1) 321 (7.3)
 6+ 160 (3.6) 50 (1.1) 110 (2.5)
Women’s empowerment
Socio-cultural Empowerment
Highest educational level
 No education 1384 (31.5) 508 (11.5) 876 (19.9) 0.000
 Primary 856 (19.5) 404 (9.2) 452 (10.3)
 Secondary 1502 (34.1) 936 (21.3) 566 (12.9)
 Higher 658 (15.0) 505 (11.5) 153 (3.5)  
Attitude towards wife beating
 Negative attitude 3148 (71.5) 1740 (39.5) 1408 (32.0) 0.012
 Positive attitude 1253 (28.5) 613 (13.9) 640 (14.5)
Knowledge on property
 Unknown 253 (5.8) 139 (3.2) 114 (2.6)  
 Known 4147 (94.2) 2214 (50.3) 1933 (43.9) 0.689
Economic empowerment
Occupation of Women
 Not working 1811 (41.2) 1035 (23.5) 777 (17.7) 0.000
 Agriculture 1955 (44.4) 889 (20.2) 1066 (24.2)
 Other occupations 634 (14.4) 429 (9.8) 205 (4.7)
Property possession
 Not owned 3994 (90.8) 2082 (47.3) 1912 (43.5)  
 Owned 406 (9.2) 270 (6.1) 136 (3.1) 0.000
Owns bank account
 No 2801 (63.7) 1347 (30.6) 1454 (33.0)  
 Yes 1599 (36.3) 1005 (22.8) 594 (13.5) 0.000
Empowerment on media/information technology
Media exposure
 No access 1967 (44.7) 814 (18.5) 1152 (26.2)  
 Medium access 1757 (39.9) 1046 (23.8) 710 (16.1) 0.000
 High access 677 (15.3) 492 (11.2) 185 (4.2)
Internet use
 Never 3516 (79.9) 1669 (37.9) 1847 (42.0)  
 Sometimes 884 (20.1) 684 (15.5) 200 (4.6) 0.000
Familial/Interpersonal empowerment
Decision making
 Low 2438 (55.4) 1252 (28.5) 1186 (26.9) 0.016
 High 1962 (44.6) 1100 (25.0) 862 (19.6)