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Table 3 Adjusted Odds Ratio for early initiation of breastfeeding in Ghana

From: Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Ghana: a population-based cross-sectional study using the 2014 Demographic and Health Survey data

Variable Model I
AOR (95%CI)
Model II
AOR (95%CI)
Model III
AOR (95%CI)
Child factors
Birth order
  1st 0.718***[0.61–0.84] 0.72***[0.62–0.85] 0.71***[0.61–0.84]
  2-4th Ref Ref Ref
  5 and above 0.93 [0.80–1.07] 0.911 [0.79–1.06] 0.91 [0.78–1.06]
Type of delivery assistance
  Non-health professional 0.50*[0.30–0.85] 0.53*[0.31–0.89] 0.51*[0.30–0.88]
  Health professional Ref Ref Ref
Place of delivery
  Health facility 1.55 [0.92–2.63] 1.47 [0.87–2.49] 1.45 [0.85–2.48]
  Home Ref Ref Ref
Maternal factors
Religion
  Christianity   Ref Ref
  Islam   1.15 [0.96–1.37] 1.08 [0.89–1.30]
  Traditionalist   0.72 [0.51–1.02] 0.65*[0.46, 0.92]
  No region   1.16 [0.84–1.61] 1.21 [0.88–1.66]
Ethnicity
  Akan   Ref Ref
  Ga-Dangbme   0.71*[0.52–0.95] 0.83 [0.60–1.15]
  Ewe   0.77*[0.63–0.95] 1.03 [0.78–1.35]
  Mole-Dagbani   0.88 [0.73–1.05] 0.69** [0.54–0.89]
  Others   0.92 [0.76–1.11] 0.71**[0.56–0.90]
Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine
  Not at all   Ref Ref
  Less than once a week   0.84 [0.64–1.09] 0.86 [0.66–1.13]
  At least once a week   1.44*[1.04–1.99] 1.40* [1.01–1.95]
Frequency Watching television
  Not at all   1.19* [1.02–1.39] 1.13 [0.96–1.32]
  Less than once a week   1.30** [1.11–1.54] 1.28** [1.08–1.51]
  At least once a week   Ref Ref
Household and community factors
Region
  Western    1.38* [1.04–1.82]
  Central    1.53** [1.16–2.02]
  Greater Accra    1.09 [0.80–1.48]
  Volta    0.86 [0.60–1.22]
  Eastern    1.09 [0.82–1.46]
  Ashanti    Ref
  Brong Ahafo    1.84*** [1.40–2.42]
  Northern    2.40***[1.77–3.26]
  Upper east    2.57***[1.86–3.56]
  Upper west    1.09 [0.78–1.53]
  pseudo R2 0.005 0.012 0.028
  Hosmer-Lemoshow 8.66 397.35 1113.91
  ROC Area 0.5466 0.5694 0.6091
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. Ref Reference category, CI Confidence Interval
  2. Source: 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey