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Table 2 Unadjusted Odds Ratio for early initiation of breastfeeding in Ghana (n = 4219)

From: Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Ghana: a population-based cross-sectional study using the 2014 Demographic and Health Survey data

Variables Model I
UOR (95%CI)
Model II
UOR (95%CI)
Model III
UOR (95%CI)
Child factors
Sex of child
  Male Ref   
  Female 1.07 [0.94–1.21]   
Size at birth
  Larger than Average Ref   
  Average 0.98 [0.85–1.12]   
  Smaller than average 0.89 [0.75–1.05]   
Birth order
  1 0.74*** [0.63–0.86]   
  2–4 Ref   
  5+ 0.89 [0.77–1.51]   
Twin status
 Single birth Ref   
 Twin 1.03 [0.69–1.52]   
Type of assistance during delivery
 Non-health professional 0.79*** [0.69–0.91]   
 Health professional Ref   
Place child was delivered
 Home 0.82** [0.72–0.94]   
 Health facility Ref   
Maternal factors
Age
  15–24   0.97 [0.83–1.14]  
  25–34   0.91 [0.79–1.05]  
  35–49   Ref  
Marital status
  Not Married   0.98 [0.86–1.11]  
  Married   Ref  
Religion
  Christianity   Ref  
  Islam   1.11 [0.95–1.29]  
  Traditionalist   0.66* [0.48–0.91]  
  No region   1.11 [0.81–1.52]  
Ethnicity
  Akan   Ref  
  Ga-Dangbme   0.69* [0.51–0.93]  
  Ewe   0.73**[0.59–0.90]  
  Mole-Dagbani   0.91 [0.78–1.06]  
  Others   0.88 [0.75–1.05]  
Education
  No education   1.01 [0.88–1.16]  
  Primary   0.91 [0.78–1.07]  
  Secondary   Ref  
  Higher   1.02 [0.74–1.41]  
Working status
  Not working   1.04 [0.89–1.22]  
  Working   Ref  
Media exposure
Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine
  Not at all   Ref  
  Less than once a week   0.78 [0.61–1.01]  
  At least once a week   1.39* [1.02–1.90]  
Frequency of listening to radio
  Not at all   0.93 [0.79–1.10]  
  Less than once a week   1.09 [0.95–1.25]  
  At least once a week   Ref  
Frequency of watching TV
  Not at all   1.08 [0.94–1.24]  
  Less than once a week   1.26** [1.08–1.49]  
  At least once a week   Ref  
Number of ANC visits
  0   0.74 [0.52–1.05]  
  1–3   0.82 [0.67–1.00]  
  4+   Ref  
Community/household factors
Region
  Western    1.38* [1.05–1.81]
  Central    1.58** [1.20–2.07]
  Greater Accra    1.06 [0.80–1.42]
  Volta    0.82 [0.61–1.09]
  Eastern    1.05 [0.80–1.39]
  Ashanti    Ref
  Brong-Ahafo    1.74*** [1.33–2.28]
  Northern    1.58*** [1.23–2.04]
  Upper east    1.95*** [1.48–2.58]
  Upper west    0.78 [0.59–1.04]
Place of residence
  Rural    Ref
  Urban    0.97 [0.86–1.10]
Wealth index
  Poor    Ref
  Middle    0.90 [0.77–1.06]
  Rich    1.00 [0.87–1.15]
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. Ref Reference category, CI Confidence Interval
  2. Source: 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey