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Table 1 Characteristics of the women in the development and validation cohorts

From: Risk score for predicting primary cesarean delivery in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

Characteristic Development cohort (n = 385) P Validation cohort (n = 448) P
Primary CD (Yes) Primary CD (No) Primary CD (Yes) Primary CD (No)
Number of women 130 255   178 270  
Age (years), median (IQR) 31.5 (27.0–35.0) 31.0 (27.0–36.0) 0.766 33.0 (28.0–36.0) 31.0 (27.0–35.0) 0.093
Age (years), n (%)    0.372    0.054
 < 35 92 (70.8) 169 (66.3)   109 (61.2) 189 (70.0)  
 ≥ 35 38 (29.2) 86 (33.7)   69 (38.8) 81 (30.0)  
Parity, n (%)    < 0.001    <  0.001
 Multiparity 45 (34.6) 180 (70.6)   57 (32.0) 179 (66.3)  
 Nulliparity 85 (65.4) 75 (29.4)   121 (68.0) 91 (33.7)  
Prepregnancy BMI category (kg/m2), n (%)    0.301    0.478
 Normal 74 (56.9) 150 (58.8)   83 (46.6) 139 (51.5)  
 Underweight 7 (5.4) 26 (10.2)   18 (10.1) 31 (11.5)  
 Overweight 33 (25.4) 51 (20.0)   51 (28.7) 60 (22.2)  
 Obese 16 (12.3) 28 (11.0)   26 (14.6) 40 (14.8)  
Gestational weight gain, n (%)    0.003    <  0.001
 Within/below IOM recommendations 78 (60.0) 190 (74.5)   105 (59.0) 214 (79.3)  
 Above IOM recommendations 52 (40.0) 65 (25.5)   73 (41.0) 56 (20.7)  
History of diabetes in a first-degree relative, n (%)    0.271    0.992
 No 90 (69.2) 190 (74.5)   126 (70.8) 191 (71.7)  
 Yes 40 (30.8) 65 (25.5)   52 (29.2) 79 (29.3)  
Insulin use, n (%)    0.044    0.045
 No 108 (83.1) 230 (90.2)   148 (83.1) 242 (89.6)  
 Yes 22 (16.9) 25 (9.8)   30 (16.9) 28 (10.4)  
Type of insulin, n (%)
 Rapid-acting insulin 3 (2.3) 3 (1.2) 0.397 5 (2.8) 2 (0.7) 0.084
 Short-acting insulin 8 (6.2) 7 (2.7) 0.102 6 (3.4) 3 (1.1) 0.095
 Intermediate-acting insulin 8 (6.2) 2 (0.8) 0.002 6 (3.4) 10 (3.7) 0.853
 Premixed insulin 11 (8.5) 19 (7.5) 0.726 17 (9.6) 20 (7.4) 0.420
Units of insulin used in pregnancy, median (IQR) 545 (256–1641) 456 (271–1622) 1.000 1029 (287–1747) 984 (387–2221) 0.785
Indication for primary CD, n (%)       
 Elective CD due to an estimated large fetus 31 (23.8) 57 (32.0)
 Emergency CD due to labor dystocia 91 (70.0) 112 (62.9)
 Emergency CD due to abnormal FHR tracing 8 (6.2) 9 (5.1)
Neonatal birth weight (g), median (IQR) 3582 (3356–3882) 3108 (2845–3374) < 0.001 3647 (3449–3880) 3062 (2821–3346) < 0.001
  1. BMI Body mass index, CD Cesarean delivery, FHR Fetal heart rate, IOM Institute of Medicine, IQR Interquartile range