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Table 1 Distribution of gestational weight gain across demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes, Puerto Rico 2005–2012 (N = 320,695)

From: Associations between gestational weight gain and preterm birth in Puerto Rico

  Low (N = 87,580) Adequate (N = 103,085) Excessive (N = 130,030)
  N (%) OR (95% CI) N (%) N (%) OR (95% CI)
Maternal Age (years)
  < 20 18,322 (20.9) 1.11 (1.08, 1.14) 18,588 (18.0) 21,033 (16.2) 0.92 (0.90, 0.95)
  20–24 29,681 (33.9) Ref 33,409 (32.4) 40,999 (31.5) Ref
  25–29 20,525 (23.4) 0.89 (0.87, 0.91) 25,916 (25.1) 34,984 (26.9) 1.10 (1.08, 1.12)
  30–34 13,944 (15.9) 0.84 (0.82, 0.87) 18,594 (18.0) 24,913 (19.2) 1.09 (1.07, 1.12)
  ≥35 5,093 (5.82) 0.87 (0.84, 0.91) 6,570 (6.37) 8,090 (6.22) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04)
  Missing 15 (0.02)   8 (0.01) 11 (0.01)  
Pre-pregnancy BMI
  Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 10,768 (12.3) 1.13 (1.10,1.16) 9,923 (9.63) 4,440 (3.41) 0.50 (0.49, 0.52)
  Normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 53,777 (61.4) Ref 55,922 (54.3) 49,685 (38.2) Ref
  Overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2) 12,380 (14.1) 0.58 (0.56, 0.59) 22,322 (21.7) 44,650 (34.3) 2.25 (2.21, 2.30)
  Obese ( 30 kg/m2) 10,655 (12.2) 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) 14,918 (14.5) 31,255 (24.0) 2.36 (2.30, 2.41)
Marital Status
  Single 30,269 (34.6) 0.81 (0.80, 0.83) 40,588 (39.4) 51,220 (39.4) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
  Married/Living Together 57,300 (65.4) Ref 62,485 (60.6) 78,799 (60.6) Ref
  Missing 11 (0.01)   12 (0.01) 11 (0.01)  
Education
  < High School 19,943 (22.8) 1.19 (1.16,1.22) 18,590 (18.0) 21,806 (16.8) 0.93 (0.91, 0.95)
  High School 29,803 (34.0) Ref 33,056 (32.1) 41,758 (32.1) Ref
  >High School 37,675 (43.0) 0.81 (0.80,0.83) 51,285 (49.8) 66,286 (51.0) 1.02 (1.00, 1.04)
  Missing 159 (0.18)   154 (0.15) 180 (0.14)  
Insurance Statusa
  Public 64,239 (73.4) 1.33 (1.31, 1.36) 69,644 (67.6) 86,247 (66.3) 0.94 (0.93, 0.96)
  Private 22,184 (25.3) Ref 32,118 (31.2) 42,160 (32.4) Ref
  Other 921 (1.05) 1.30 (1.18, 1.42) 1,029 (1.00) 1,298 (1.00) 0.96 (0.88, 1.04)
  Missing 236 (0.27)   294 (0.29) 325 (0.25)  
Preterm Birth
  Yes 16,722 (19.1) 1.25 (1.22, 1.28) 16,329 (15.8) 23,207 (17.9) 1.15 (1.13, 1.18)
  No 70,858 (80.9) Ref 86,756 (84.2) 106,823 (82.2) Ref
Birth Weight for Gestational Age
  Small for Gestational Age 11,503 (13.1) 1.45 (1.41, 1.49) 9,649 (9.36) 8,674 (6.67) 0.73 (0.70, 0.75)
  Adequate for Gestational Age 71,905 (82.1) Ref 87,459 (84.8) 108,289 (83.3) Ref
  Large for Gestational Age 4,143 (4.73) 0.85 (0.81, 0.88) 5,958 (5.78) 13,034 (10.0) 1.77 (1.71, 1.82)
  Missing 29 (0.03)   19 (0.02) 33 (0.03)  
  1. Note: Adequate is the reference group for odds ratios
  2. Abbreviations: OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, Ref Reference, BMI Body mass index
  3. aOther includes out of pocket, charity, and other