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Table 1 Distribution of maternal and obstetric sample characteristics by nativity, 2013–2017, N = 8609

From: Preterm birth and nativity among Black women with gestational diabetes in California, 2013–2017: a population-based retrospective cohort study

  U.S.-born
n = 7222
Foreign-born
n = 1387
Total
n = 8609
p value (by χ2)
n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Maternal Age (years)     <  0.0001
 < 24 1014 (14.0) 30 (2.2) 1044 (12.1)  
 24–39 5751 (79.6) 1187 (85.6) 6938 (80.6)  
> 40 457 (6.3) 170 (12.3) 627 (7.3)  
Prior PTB     0.0033
 Yes 222 (3.1) 23 (1.7) 245 (2.9)  
 No 6991 (96.9) 1373 (98.4) 8364 (97.2)  
Parity     0.6771
 Nulliparous 2130 (29.5) 420 (30.1) 2550 (29.8)  
 Multiparous/missing parity 5083 (70.5) 976 (69.9) 6059 (70.4)  
Education     <  0.0001
 < 12 704 (9.8) 88 (6.3) 792 (9.2)  
 12 2211 (30.6) 297 (21.4) 2508 (29.1)  
 > 12 4099 (56.8) 926 (66.8) 5025 (58.4)  
 Missing values 208 (2.9) 76 (5.5) 284 (3.3)  
Participation in WIC     <  0.0001
 Yes 4785 (66.3) 715 (51.6) 5500 (63.9)  
 No 2397 (33.2) 663 (47.8) 3060 (35.5)  
 Missing values 40 (0.6) 9 (0.7) 49 (0.6)  
Preeclampsia     0.0014
 Yes 971 (13.5) 143 (10.3) 1114 (12.9)  
 No 6251 (86.6) 1244 (89.7) 7495 (87.1)  
Smoking during pregnancy     <  0.0001
 Yes 725 (10.0) 8 (0.6) 733 (8.5)  
 No 6497 (90.0) 1379 (99.4) 7876 (91.5)  
Payer status for birth     <  0.0001
 Employer health/individual plans 2715 (37.6) 601 (43.3) 3316 (38.5)  
 Medi-Cal/Public insurance 4024 (55.7) 687 (49.5) 4711 (54.7)  
 Self-Pay 49 (0.7) 31 (2.2) 80 (0.9)  
 Other 434 (6.0) 68 (4.9) 502 (5.8)  
Body mass index [BMI (kg/m2)]     <  0.0001
 < 18.5 93 (1.3) 29 (2.1) 122 (1.4)  
 18.5 to < 25 1235 (17.1) 434 (31.3) 1669 (19.4)  
 25 to < 30 1561 (21.6) 437 (31.5) 1998 (23.2)  
 30 to < 35 1539 (21.3) 262 (18.9) 1801 (20.9)  
 35 to < 40 1168 (16.2) 85 (6.1) 1253 (14.6)  
> 40 1245 (17.2) 57 (4.1) 1302 (15.1)  
 Missing values 381 (5.3) 83 (6.0) 464 (5.4)  
Adequacy of prenatal care     0.0032
 Adequate/adequate plus 5367 (74.3) 965 (69.6) 6332 (73.6)  
 Intermediate 854 (11.8) 193 (13.9) 1047 (12.2)  
 Inadequate 797 (11.0) 186 (13.4) 983 (11.4)  
 Missing 204 (2.8) 43 (3.1) 247 (2.9)  
Birth Type     0.8498
 Vaginal Birth 3630 (50.3) 701 (50.5) 4331 (50.3)  
 Cesarean Birth 3592 (49.7) 686 (49.5) 4278 (49.7)  
  1. anot presented when n < 5