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Table 4 Adverse outcomes in the second stage of labor in multiparous women (n = 7109)

From: The impact of stage of labor on adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in multiparous women: a retrospective cohort study

  Duration of second stage of labor Linear trend X2 P
< 1 h 1–1.9 h 2–2.9 h 3–3.9 h ≥4 h
Overall outcomes 1159(20.0) 238(30.7) 107(38.5) 79(61.2) 94(69.6) 349.70 < 0.001
Maternal outcomes 343(5.9) 113(14.6) 70(25.2) 58(45.0) 87(64.4) 821.97 < 0.001
 Referral cesarean delivery 6(0.1) 13(1.7) 17(6.1) 18(14.0) 44(32.6) 989.84 < 0.001
 Instrumental delivery 88(1.5) 37(4.8) 28(10.1) 25(19.4) 29(21.5) 375.02 < 0.001
 Postpartum hemorrhage 90(1.8) 25(3.8) 6(2.7) 12(10.4) 22(19.0) 130.31 < 0.001
 III and IV degree laceration 48(0.9) 11(1.6) 6(2.5) 6(5.8) 7(7.1) 46.88 < 0.001
 Length of stay≥90th 150(2.6) 54(7.0) 38(13.7) 34(26.4) 56(41.5) 614.33 < 0.001
Neonatal outcomes 924(16.0) 152(19.6) 59(21.2) 41(31.8) 37(27.4) 38.06 < 0.001
 NICU 295(5.1) 55(7.1) 28(10.1) 18(14.0) 15(11.1) 36.42 < 0.001
 Shoulder dystocia 150(2.6) 22(2.9) 7(2.6) 4(3.3) 2(1.5) 0.05 0.83
 Apgar ≤7(5 min) 48(0.8) 17(2.2) 6(2.2) 13(10.1) 5(3.7) 64.22 < 0.001
 Neonatal resuscitation 609(11.2) 95(13.1) 30(11.9) 30(25.2) 26(21.1) 24.22 < 0.001
 Assisted ventilation 123(2.3) 23(3.2) 10(4.0) 14(11.8) 11(8.9) 48.11 < 0.001
  1. Data was presented as n(%). Linear trend Chi-square test for categorical data