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Table 3 Obstetric and birth outcomes women born in Sweden with birth from 32 weeks’ gestation; 13,029 women registered at a maternity clinic randomized to Mindfetalness and 13,456 women registered at a maternity clinic randomized to routine care. Obstetric outcomes adjusted for age, educational level, body mass index, previous stillbirth, tobacco use at registration and treatment for mental illness

From: A decrease in cesarean sections and labor inductions among Swedish women by awareness of fetal movements with the Mindfetalness method

Outcome Mindfetalness
n (%)
Routine care
n (%)
RR p–value CI
Induction of labor 2500 (19.2) 2729 (20.3) 0.95 0.03 0.90–0.99
 Adjusted for:
 Age    0.95 0.03 0.90–1.00
 Educational level    0.93 0.006 0.89–0.98
 Body mass index    0.95 0.04 0.90–1.00
 Previous stillbirth    0.94 0.02 0.90–0.99
 Tobacco use at registration    0.94 0.02 0.90–0.99
 Treatment for mental illness    0.94 0.02 0.90–0.99
Cesarean section 2394 (18.4) 2692 (20.0) 0.92 < 0.001 0.87–0.97
 Adjusted for:
 Age    0.93 0.006 0.89–0.98
 Educational level    0.92 0.002 0.88–0.97
 Body mass index    0.92 < 0.001 0.87–0.96
 Previous stillbirth    0.92 < 0.001 0.87–0.96
 Tobacco use at registration    0.92 < 0.001 0.87–0.96
 Treatment for mental illness    0.92 < 0.001 0.87–0.96
Cesarean pre–labor 1297 (10.0) 1470 (10.9) 0.91 0.01 0.85–0.98
 Adjusted for:
 Age    0.94 0.06 0.87–1.00
 Educational level    0.92 0.02 0.85–0.98
 Body mass index    0.91 0.01 0.85–0.98
 Previous stillbirth    0.91 0.008 0.85–0.98
 Tobacco use at registration    0.91 0.009 0.85–0.98
 Treatment for mental illness    0.91 0.007 0.85–0.97
Cesarean in labor 1097 (8.4) 1222 (9.1) 0.93 0.06 0.86–1.00
 Adjusted for:
 Age    0.93 0.07 0.86–1.01
 Educational level    0.93 0.08 0.86–1.01
 Body mass index    0.92 0.04 0.85–1.00
 Previous stillbirth    0.93 0.05 0.86–1.00
 Tobacco use at registration    0.92 0.05 0.85–1.00
 Treatment for mental illness    0.92 0.05 0.85–1.00
Spontaneous start of labor 9238 (70.9) 9263 (68.8) 1.03 < 0.001 1.01–1.05
 Adjusted for:
 Age    1.02 0.002 1.01–1.04
 Educational level    1.03 < 0.001 1.02–1.05
 Body mass index    1.03 < 0.001 1.01–1.04
 Previous stillbirth    1.03 < 0.001 1.02–1.05
 Tobbacco use at registration    1.03 < 0.001 1.01–1.05
 Treatment for mental illness    1.03 < 0.001 1.01–1.05
Preterm delivery 483 (3.7) 479 (3.6) 1.04 0.52 0.92–1.18
 Adjusted for:
 Age at birth    1.04 0.55 0.92–1.18
 Educational level    1.04 0.55 0.91–1.18
 Body mass index    1.05 0.44 0.93–1.20
 Previous stillbirth    1.04 0.54 0.92–1.18
 Tobacco user at registration    1.04 0.55 0.92–1.18
 Treatment for Mental illness    1.04 0.55 0.92–1.18
Gestation > 41 + 6 687 (5.3) 804 (6.0) 0.88 0.01 0.80–0.97
 Adjusted for:
 Age at birth    0.88 0.01 0.80–0.97
 Educational level    0.88 0.02 0.80–0.98
 Body mass index    0.88 0.02 0.80–0.98
 Previous stillbirth    NA NA NA
 Tobacco user at registration    0.88 0.01 0.80–0.97
 Treatment for Mental illness    0.89 0.02 0.81–0.98
Apgar score less than 7 at 5 mina 127 (1.0) 128 (1.0) 1.02 0.85 0.80–1.31
 Adjusted for:
 Age at birth    1.02 0.88 0.80–1.30
 Educational level    1.01 0.93 0.78–1.30
 Body mass index    0.99 0.96 0.77–1.27
 Previous stillbirth    1.02 0.86 0.80–1.31
 Tobacco user at registration    1.02 0.86 0.80–1.31
 Treatment for Mental illness    1.00 0.99 0.78–1.28
Apgar score less than 4 at 5 mina 48 (0.4) 39 (0.3) 1.27 0.26 0.83–1.95
 Adjusted for:
 Age at birth    1.27 0.27 0.83–1.94
 Educational level    1.26 0.30 0.81–1.98
 Body mass index    1.31 0.21 0.86–2.01
 Previous stillbirth    1.27 0.27 0.83–1.94
 Tobacco user at registration    1.27 0.26 0.84–1.95
 Treatment for Mental illness    1.25 0.29 0.82–1.92
Birthweight ≤10th centile 1107 (8.5) 1253 (9.3) 0.91 0.02 0.84–0.98
 Adjusted for:
 Age at birth    0.91 0.01 0.84–0.98
 Educational level    0.90 0.01 0.83–0.98
 Body mass index    0.90 0.01 0.84–0.98
 Previous stillbirth    0.91 0.02 0.84–0.98
 Tobacco user at registration    0.91 0.01 0.84–0.98
 Treatment for Mental illness    0.91 0.02 0.84–0.98
Birthweight <2SDb*** 315 (2.4) 360 (2.7) 0.90 0.18 0.78–1.05
 Adjusted for:
 Age at birth    0.90 0.16 0.77–1.04
 Educational level    0.91 0.26 0.78–1.07
 Body mass index    0.89 0.14 0.77–1.04
 Previous stillbirth    0.90 0.19 0.78–1.05
 Tobacco user at registration    0.90 0.17 0.77–1.04
 Treatment for Mental illness    0.90 0.19 0.78–1.05
Transfer to NICU 832 (6.4) 914 (6.8) 0.94 0.18 0.86–1.03
 Adjusted for:
 Age at birth    0.94 0.19 0.86–1.03
 Educational level    0.95 0.24 0.86–1.04
 Body mass index    0.95 0.28 0.87–1.04
 Previous stillbirth    0.94 0.18 0.86–1.03
 Tobacco user at registration    0.94 0.17 0.86–1.03
 Treatment for Mental illness    0.93 0.15 0.85–1.02
Death within 27 days after birth 2 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 1.03 0.97 0.12–8.61
 Adjusted for:
 Age at birth    1.07 0.94 0.13–8.96
 Educational level    1.01 0.99 0.12–8.43
 Body mass index    1.07 0.95 0.13–8.88
 Previous stillbirth    NA NA NA
 Tobacco user at registration    NA NA NA
 Treatment for Mental illness    NA NA NA
Contacting healthcare due to DFM 1011 (7.8) 584 (4.3) 1.79 < 0.001 1.62–1.97
 Adjusted for:
 Age at birth    1.77 < 0.001 1.60–1.95
 Educational level    1.83 < 0.001 1.65–2.03
 Body mass index    1.81 < 0.001 1.63–2.00
 Previous stillbirth    1.79 < 0.001 1.62–1.98
 Tobacco user at registration    1.79 < 0.001 1.62–1.97
 Treatment for Mental illness    1.79 < 0.001 1.62–1.98
  1. aData are missing for 46 women (20 in Mindfetalness group and 26 in Routine care group)
  2. bData are missing for 23 women (11 in Mindfetalness group and 12 in Routine care group)
  3. *Number of stillbirths (Apgar = 0) Mindfetalness n = 17 (0. 1%); Routine care n = 14 (0. 1%)
  4. **International definition of Small for Gestational Age (SGA) ≤10th centile for the gestational age
  5. ***Swedish definition of Small for Gestational Age (SGA) <2SD from the national reference mean
  6. NICU Neonatal intensive care unit