Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of live births and stillbirths in labour and delivery wards, EN-BIRTH Study (n = 23,072 births)

From: Stillbirths including intrapartum timing: EN-BIRTH multi-country validation study

  Bangladesh Bangladesh Nepal Tanzania Tanzania All sites
Azimpur Tertiary Kushtia District Pokhara Regional Temeke Regional Muhimbili National
Live births Stillbirths Live births Stillbirths Live births Stillbirths Live births Stillbirths Live births Stillbirths Live births Stillbirths
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
a) Total babies observeda 2896 11 2308 74 7175 126 6634 153 3509 186 22,522 550
Mode of birth
 Normal vaginal birth 760 (26.2) 10 (90.9) 1337 (57.9) 51 (68.9) 5789 (80.7) 98 (77.8) 6157 (92.8) 133 (86.9) 1468 (41.8) 118 (63.1) 15,511 (68.9) 410 (74.4)
 Vaginal breech/ Vacuum/ Forceps 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 337 (4.7) 13 (10.3) 9 (0.1) 1 (0.7) 8 (0.2) 2 (1.1) 355 (1.6) 16 (2.9)
 Caesarean Section 2135 (73.7) 1 (9.1) 971 (42.1) 23 (31.1) 1049 (14.6) 14 (11.1) 467 (7) 17 (11.1) 2033 (57.9) 61 (32.6) 6655 (29.6) 116 (21.1)
 Missing 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.8) 1 (0) 2 (1.3) 0 (0) 6 (3.2) 1 (0) 9 (1.6)
Birthweight
  < 1000 1 (0) 0 (0) 6 (0.3) 1 (1.4) 7 (0.1) 20 (15.9) 13 (0.2) 0 (0) 23 (0.7) 21 (11.5) 50 (0.2) 42 (7.7)
 1000–1499 1 (0) 0 (0) 27 (1.2) 0 (0) 23 (0.3) 15 (11.9) 14 (0.2) 8 (5.2) 132 (3.8) 27 (14.8) 197 (0.9) 50 (9.1)
 1500–2499 351 (12.1) 0 (0) 434 (18.8) 3 (4.1) 795 (11.1) 35 (27.8) 440 (6.6) 26 (17) 737 (21) 57 (31.1) 2757 (12.3) 121 (22.1)
 2500+ 2525 (87.2) 3 (27.3) 1801 (78.2) 3 (4.1) 6233 (86.9) 41 (32.5) 5968 (90.1) 83 (54.2) 2515 (71.7) 34 (18.6) 19,042 (84.6) 164 (30)
 Birthweight missing 18 (0.6) 8 (72.7) 36 (1.6) 67 (90.5) 115 (1.6) 15 (11.9) 188 (2.8) 36 (23.5) 99 (2.9) 44 (24.1) 456 (2.0) 170 (31.1)
Gestational age (recorded at admission)
  < 28 weeks 1 (0) 0 (0) 6 (0.3) 1 (1.4) 6 (0.1) 22 (17.5) 1 (0) 2 (1.3) 12 (0.3) 7 (3.8) 26 (0.1) 32 (5.8)
 28–32 weeks 1 (0) 1 (9.1) 35 (1.5) 5 (6.8) 20 (0.3) 12 (9.5) 45 (0.7) 7 (4.6) 186 (5.3) 53 (28.6) 287 (1.3) 78 (14.2)
 32–36 weeks 637 (22) 4 (36.4) 464 (20.1) 43 (58.1) 337 (4.7) 27 (21.4) 1479 (22.3) 51 (33.6) 971 (27.7) 79 (42.7) 3888 (17.3) 204 (37.2)
 37+ 2180 (75.3) 5 (45.5) 1789 (77.5) 25 (33.8) 6550 (91.4) 57 (45.2) 4503 (67.9) 78 (51.3) 2267 (64.7) 43 (23.2) 17,289 (76.8) 208 (38)
 Missing 77 (2.7) 1 (9.1) 13 (0.6) 0 (0) 257 (3.6) 8 (6.3) 605 (9.1) 14 (9.2) 69 (2) 3 (1.6) 1021 (4.5) 26 (4.7)
Sex
 Female 1437 (49.6) 4 (36.4) 1118 (48.4) 36 (48.6) 3315 (46.2) 54 (42.9) 3201 (48.3) 64 (41.8) 1723 (49.1) 90 (48.4) 10,794 (47.9) 248 (45.1)
 Male 1458 (50.3) 7 (63.6) 1189 (51.5) 31 (41.9) 3837 (53.5) 66 (52.4) 3397 (51.2) 84 (54.9) 1760 (50.2) 73 (39.2) 11,641 (51.7) 261 (47.5)
 Ambiguous 1 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0) 3 (4.1) 13 (0.2) 0 (0) 7 (0.1) 0 (0) 3 (0.1) 3 (1.6) 25 (0.1) 6 (1.1)
 Missing 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (5.4) 10 (0.1) 6 (4.8) 29 (0.4) 5 (3.3) 23 (0.7) 20 (10.8) 62 (0.3) 35 (6.4)
b) Total women observedb 2872 11 2265 71 7111 119 6521 145 3331 174 22,100 520
Women’s age
  < 18 years 25 (0.9) 0 (0) 2 (0.1) 0 (0) 303 (4.3) 6 (5) 25 (0.4) 1 (0.7) 6 (0.2) 1 (0.6) 361 (1.6) 8 (1.5)
 18–19 years 465 (16.2) 3 (27.3) 185 (8.2) 6 (8.5) 800 (11.3) 10 (8.4) 748 (11.5) 10 (6.9) 147 (4.4) 7 (4.0) 2345 (10.6) 36 (6.9)
 20–24 years 1147 (39.9) 4 (36.4) 881 (38.9) 28 (39.4) 2978 (41.9) 37 (31.1) 2239 (34.3) 43 (29.7) 674 (20.2) 40 (23) 7919 (35.8) 152 (29.2)
 25–29 years 854 (29.7) 3 (27.3) 700 (30.9) 26 (36.6) 2041 (28.7) 32 (26.9) 1636 (25.1) 41 (28.3) 1068 (32.1) 47 (27) 6299 (28.5) 149 (28.7)
 30–34 years 294 (10.2) 1 (9.1) 353 (15.6) 8 (11.3) 785 (11) 20 (16.8) 1108 (17) 25 (17.2) 864 (25.9) 40 (23) 3404 (15.4) 94 (18.1)
 35+ years 87 (3) 0 (0) 144 (6.4) 3 (4.2) 204 (2.9) 14 (11.8) 765 (11.7) 25 (17.2) 572 (17.2) 39 (22.4) 1772 (8.0) 81 (15.6)
Women’s education
 No education 37 (1.3) 0 (0) 70 (3.1) 5 (7) 256 (3.6) 7 (5.9) 196 (3) 3 (2.1) 62 (1.9) 3 (1.7) 621 (2.8) 18 (3.5)
 Primary incomplete 110 (3.8) 0 (0) 117 (5.2) 7 (9.9) 240 (3.4) 9 (7.6) 76 (1.2) 1 (0.7) 40 (1.2) 5 (2.9) 583 (2.6) 22 (4.2)
 Primary complete 333 (11.6) 2 (18.2) 317 (14) 18 (25.4) 287 (4) 8 (6.7) 28 (0.4) 1 (0.7) 4 (0.1) 1 (0.6) 969 (4.4) 30 (5.8)
 Secondary incomplete 973 (33.9) 4 (36.4) 900 (39.7) 27 (38) 1582 (22.2) 25 (21) 3921 (60.1) 87 (60) 1189 (35.7) 77 (44.3) 8565 (38.8) 220 (42.3)
 Secondary complete or higher 1259 (43.8) 5 (45.5) 828 (36.6) 13 (18.3) 4370 (61.5) 49 (41.2) 2268 (34.8) 52 (35.9) 2022 (60.7) 88 (50.6) 10,747 (48.6) 207 (39.8)
 Missing 160 (5.6) 0 (0) 33 (1.5) 1 (1.4) 376 (5.3) 21 (17.6) 32 (0.5) 1 (0.7) 14 (0.4) 0 (0) 615 (2.8) 23 (4.4)
Parity
 Nullipara 1326 (46.2) 10 (90.9) 960 (42.4) 28 (39.4) 4255 (59.8) 58 (48.7) 2822 (43.3) 56 (38.6) 1270 (38.1) 62 (35.6) 10,633 (48.1) 214 (41.2)
 Multipara 1493 (52) 1 (9.1) 1300 (57.4) 43 (60.6) 2849 (40.1) 61 (51.3) 3686 (56.5) 88 (60.7) 2057 (61.8) 112 (64.4) 11,385 (51.5) 305 (58.7)
 Missing 53 (1.8) 0 (0) 5 (0.2) 0 (0) 7 (0.1) 0 (0) 13 (0.2) 1 (0.7) 4 (0.1) 0 (0) 82 (0.4) 1 (0.2)
  1. aData from observation
  2. bData collected from women’s registration and survey report