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Table 2 Characteristics associated with the least-well functioning quintile in the postpartum sample (N = 740)

From: Measurement of maternal functioning during pregnancy and postpartum: findings from the cross-sectional WHO pilot study in Jamaica, Kenya, and Malawi

  Distribution in Sample
N (%)
Model A* Model B **
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI P
Country setting
Country Jamaica 256 (34.6%) 1.00   < 0.0001 1.00   < 0.0001
Kenya 242 (32.7%) 3.11 1.83, 5.27 7.01 3.85, 12.75
Malawi 242 (32.7%) 0.41 0.25, 0.067 0.86 0.50, 1.49
Health condition and associated risk factors
Direct maternal conditiona None 676 (91.4%) 1.00   0.0148 1.00   0.1188
1 + direct condition 64 (8.7%) 2.31 1.21, 4.39 1.78 0.84, 3.77
Indirect maternal conditiona None 646 (87.3%) 1.00   0.0043 1.00   0.0304
1 + indirect condition 94 (12.7%) 2.58 1.43, 4.67 1.96 1.08, 3.55
Any condition None 951 (79.9%) 1.00   0.0001  
1 + condition 149 (20.1%) 2.82 1.88, 4.22
Anxiety scoreb [mean (SD)] 1.5 (2.4) 1.22 1.09, 1.36 0.0018 1.11 0.98, 1.27 0.0875
Depression scorec [mean (SD)] 1.2 (2.0) 1.30 1.16, 1.46 0.0003 1.19 1.01, 1.40 0.0353
Exposure to violence No 659 (89.1%) 1.00    
Yes 81 (11.0%) 1.32 0.67, 2.59 0.3939
Substance use No 717 (96.9%) 1.00   0.9225  
Yes 23 (3.1%) 0.93 0.21, 4.10
Socio-demographic characteristics
Maternal age < 20 years 115 (15.5%) 1.00   0.0929 1.00   0.0960
20–34 years 550 (74.3%) 1.17 0.70, 1.94 1.21 0.68, 2.14
≥ 35 years 75 (10.1%) 2.03 1.01, 4.10 2.11 0.97, 4.58
Previous births No previous births 240 (32.4%) 1.00   0.3285  
1 previous 199 (26.9%) 0.81 0.61, 1.07
2 + previous 301 (40.27) 0.89 0.55, 1.44
Maternal education Primary or less 214 (28.9%) 1.00   0.1719  
Secondary 356 (48.1%) 1.66 0.87, 3.18
Tertiary 170 (23.0%) 1.68 0.85, 3.00
Marital status No partner 227 (30.7%) 1.00   0.9286  
Has partner 513 (69.3%) 1.02 0.69, 1.49
Employed No 384 (51.9%) 1.00   0.1707  
Yes 356 (48.1%) 1.27 0.89, 1.82
Characteristics associated with index delivery
Mode of delivery Vaginal 577 (78.0%) 1.00   0.0447 1.00   0.0653
Caesarean 163 (22.0%) 2.19 1.2, 4.68 2.08 0.95, 4.55
Currently breastfeeding No 19 (2.8%) 3.34 0.93, 12.01 0.0478 3.19 0.60, 16.97 0.0401
Yes 711 (96.1%) 1.00   1.00  
Infant not alive 10 (1.4%) 4.61 1.23, 17.19 3.10 1.30, 7.40
  1. * Adjusted for country
  2. ** Adjusted for country, direct maternal health condition, indirect maternal health condition & maternal age a priori, in addition to characteristics associated with p < 0.1 in Model A. Any health condition not included in model due to over-adjustment
  3. aAs per the ICD-10 classification
  4. bAttainable range: 0 to 21
  5. cAttainable range: 0 to 27