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Table 1 Characteristics associated with the least-well functioning quintile in the antenatal sample (N = 750)

From: Measurement of maternal functioning during pregnancy and postpartum: findings from the cross-sectional WHO pilot study in Jamaica, Kenya, and Malawi

  Distribution in Sample
N (%)
Model A* Model B **
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI P
Country setting
Country Jamaica 253 (33.7%) 1.00   0.0025 1.00   0.0456
Kenya 258 (34.4%) 1.10 0.56, 2.15 2.00 0.88, 4.57
Malawi 239 (31.9%) 0.67 0.36, 1.25 1.27 0.57, 2.83
Health condition and associated risk factors
Direct maternal conditiona None 613 (81.7%) 1.00   0.0933 1.00   0.0398
1 + direct condition 137 (18.3%) 1.46 0.93, 2.30 1.69 1.03, 2.76
Indirect maternal conditiona None 615 (82.0%) 1.00   0.2618 1.00   0.5607
1 + indirect condition 135 (18.0%) 1.29 0.81, 2.08 1.18 0.65, 2.13
Any condition None 500 (66.7%) 1.00   0.0077  
1 + condition 250 (33.3%) 1.42 1.12, 1.80
Anxiety scoreb [mean (SD)] 2.6 (3.0) 1.22 1.11, 1.35 0.0005 1.16 1.03, 1.32 0.0214
Depression scorec [mean (SD)] 2.4 (3.3) 1.19 1.12, 1.28 0.0001 1.10 1.00, 1.22 0.0582
Exposure to violence No 654 (87.2%) 1.00   0.0807 1.00   0.8435
Yes 96 (12.8%) 1.63 0.93, 2.86 1.05 0.61, 1.80
Substance use No 720 (96.0%) 1.00   0.8182  
Yes 30 (4.0%) 0.90 0.33, 2.44
Socio-demographic characteristics
Maternal age < 20 years 91 (12.1%) 1.00   0.1950 1.00   0.0589
20–34 years 591 (78.8%) 1.71 0.93, 3.12 2.04 1.17, 3.54
≥ 35 years 68 (9.1%) 2.96 0.87, 10.06 3.80 1.16, 12.45
Previous births No previous births 260 (34.7%) 1.00   0.2622  
1 previous births 202 (26.9%) 1.01 0.70, 1.47
2 + previous 288 (38.4%) 1.50 0.90, 2.50
Maternal education Primary or less 202 (26.9%) 1.00   0.2880  
Secondary 370 (49.3%) 1.05 0.77, 1.43
Tertiary 178 (23.7%) 1.66 0.87, 3.17
Marital status No partner 218 (29.1%) 1.00   0.8335  
Has partner 532 (70.9%) 1.06 0.60, 1.87
Employed No 357 (47.6%) 1.00   0.4821  
Yes 393 (52.4%) 1.20 0.70, 2.06
  1. * Adjusted for country
  2. ** Adjusted for country, direct maternal condition, indirect maternal condition & maternal age a priori, in addition to characteristics associated with p < 0.1 in Model A
  3. aAs per the ICD-10 classification
  4. bAttainable range: 0 to 21
  5. cAttainable range: 0 to 27