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Table 2 Pregnancy and Neonatal outcomes

From: Impact of comorbid polycystic ovarian syndrome and gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

  GDM+PCOS+ GDM+PCOS0 p-value
Preeclampsia    0.010
 Yes 22 (6.7) 35 (2.9)  
 No 304 (93.3) 1180 (97.1)  
Hypertension in pregnancy    0.767
 Yes 22 (6.7) 74 (6.1)  
 No 304 (93.3) 1144 (93.9)  
Mode of delivery    0.732
 Vaginal delivery 218 (66.9) 807 (67.8)  
 Caesarean section 108 (33.1) 382 (32.2)  
Vaginal delivery    0.025
 Spontaneous onset of labour 102 (46.8) 446 (55.2)  
 Induction of labour 116 (53.2) 361 (44.8)  
Caesarean Section    0.004
 Emergency C-section 50 (46.3) 120 (31.4)  
 Elective C-section 58 (53.7) 262 (68.6)  
Mean week of Delivery 38.47 (30-41) 38.24 (10-42) 0.739
Prematuritya    0.753
 Yes 32 (9.8) 90 (7.5)  
 No 294 (90.2) 1116 (92.5)  
APGAR<7 at 1 mins (%) 13.5 8.9 0.021
APGAR<7 at 5 mins (%) 1.8 2.7 0.547
Mean neonatal birth weight 3309.5 (1342-4545) 3308.5 (1000-5420) 0.982
Macrosomiab    0.193
 Yes 36 (11) 103 (8.6)  
 No 290 (89) 1092 (91.4)  
Admission to NICU    0.556
 Yes 42 (12.9) 174 (14.6)  
 No 284 (87.1) 1017 (85.4)  
Neonatal hypoglycaemiac    0.406
 Yes 40 (12.3) 121 (10.2)  
 No 286 (87.7) 1071 (89.8)  
Admission to NICU with hypoglycaemia    0.102
 Yes 28 (8.6) 72 (6)  
 No 298 (91.4) 1120 (94)  
Neonatal death    0.248
 Yes 2 (0.1) 17 (0.1)  
 No 324 (99.1) 1186 (99.9)  
Congenital abnormality    0.314
 Yes 8 (2.5) 33 (2.8)  
  Ankyloglossia 4 (1.3) 1 (0.2)  
  Cardiovascular 0 (0) 5 (0.4)  
  Gastrointestinal 0 (0) 1 (0.2)  
  Limb abnormalities 2 (0.6) 14 (1.1)  
  Neurological 0 (0) 5 (0.4)  
  Genitourinary 2 (0.6) 4 (0.3)  
  Other 0 (0) 3 (0.2)  
 No 318 (97.5) 1162 (97.2)  
  1. aPrematurity is defined as delivery before 37 weeks of gestation; bMacrosomia is defined as birthweight above 4,000g; cNeonatal hypoglycaemia is defined as blood glucose level below 2.5mmol/L within the first 24 hours of birth