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Table 1 Patient characteristics, anthropometric profile and glycaemic profile

From: Impact of comorbid polycystic ovarian syndrome and gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

  GDM+PCOS+
N = 326
GDM+PCOS0
N = 1215
p-value
Mean age (years) 29.5 (±4.4) 31.5 (±5.3) <0.001
Ethnicity    <0.001
 Caucasian 124 (37.8) 266 (21.8)  
 Non Caucasian 204 (62.2) 951 (78.2)  
  Africans 6 (1.8) 40 (3.2)  
  Southeast Asians 30 (9.2) 257 (21.2)  
  South Asians 42 (12.8) 226 (18.6)  
  Pacific Islanders 16 (4.8) 88 (7.3)  
  Middle-East 96 (29.4) 312 (25.7)  
  South Americans 4 (1.2) 15 (1.2)  
  Indigenous 6 (1.8) 10 (0.8)  
  Other 4 (1.2) 3 (0.2)  
Gravidity    <0.001
 Primigravidity 104 (31.9) 244 (20)  
 Multigravidity 222 (68.1) 973 (80)  
  <5 pregnancies 180 (55.2) 740 (60.1)  
  ≥5 pregnancies 42 (12.9) 233 (19.1)  
Smoking status    0.020
 Smokers 36 (11.1) 87 (7.2)  
 Non-smokers 288 (88.9) 1129 (92.8)  
Family History of diabetes    0.950
 Yes 150 (46.6) 562 (46.8)  
 No 172 (53.4) 639 (53.2)  
Past history of GDMa    <0.001
 Yes 32 (18.9) 305 (36.3)  
 No 138 (81.1) 536 (63.7)  
Mean Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 31.5 (±6.7) 27.7 (±9.4) <0.001
Body Habitus    <0.001
 Non-obese 200 (62.5) 836 (68.5)  
 Obesity (BMI>30) 120 (37.5) 384 (31.5)  
Mean gestational weight gain (kg) 12.6 (±7.7) 11.5 (±7.4) 0.016
Previous insulin use    0.357
 Yes 30 (9.2) 144 (11.8)  
 No 296 (90.8) 1072 (88.2)  
Use of Metformin during current pregnancy    0.005
 Yes 64 (20.5) 151 (12.4)  
 No 248 (79.5) 1064 (87.6)  
Insulin used during current pregnancy    <0.001
 Yes 178 (57.1) 536 (44.1)  
 No 134 (42.9) 679 (55.9)  
Management during current pregnancy    <0.001
 Nil medications 132 (42.3) 666 (54.8)  
 Metformin only 47 (15.1) 98 (8.1)  
 Insulin only 116 (37.2) 399 (32.8)  
 Combination 17 (5.4) 52 (4.3)  
Mean dose of prandial insulin at the end of pregnancy (units) 37.7 (±59.5) 35.4 (±39.2) 0.425
Mean dose of basal insulin at the end of pregnancy (units) 18.5 (±23.9) 17.0 (±17.3) 0.529
Mean fasting BGLb on OGTT (mmol/L) 5.4 (±3.6) 5.1 (±0.7) 0.006
Mean 1 hour BGLb on OGTT (mmol/L) 9.7 (±1.7) 9.9 (±1.8) 0.225
Mean 2 hour BGLb on OGTT (mmol/L) 7.7 (±1.7) 7.8 (±2.2) 0.469
Mean HbA1c at diagnosis 5.2 (±0.4) 5.2 (±0.4) 0.539
  1. aNulliparous women were not included in this analysis; bBlood glucose level