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Table 1 Characteristics of CEQ validations carried out in Sweden, the United Kingdom, Spain, China, and Iran

From: Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the childbirth experience questionnaire

Participants/ Postpartum Period Reliability Validity Internal consistency
Dencker et al. 2010 [3] Sweden 920 primiparous women with vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean section, instrumental assistance and oxytocin during labor.
Up to 1 month postpartum
Good Good Own Capacity: 0.82
Professional Support: 0.88
Perceived Safety: 0.78
Participation: 0.62
Walker et al. 2015 [4]
United Kingdom
350 primiparous women who had vaginal birth
One month postpartum
Substantial Substantial Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.90
Own Capacity: 0.79
Professional Support: 0.94
Perceived Safety: 0.94
Participation: 0.72
Soriano-Vidal et al. 2016 [2]
364 primiparous and multiparous women who had vaginal delivery with or without the aid of instruments
One to 3 months postpartum
Good Good Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.88
Own Capacity: 0.80
Professional Support: 0.90
Perceived Safety: 0.76
Participation: 0.68
Zhu et al. 2019 [5]
1747 primiparous and multiparous women who had spontaneous vaginal delivery
Two to 3 days postpartum
Good/ satisfactory Good Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.88
Abbaspoor et al. 2019 [6]
203 women from two different hospitals with spontaneous vaginal births
From first to 40 days postpartum
Good Good Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.82
Own Capacity: 0.71
Professional Support: 0.78
Perceived Safety: 0.69
Participation: 0.58
  1. Reliability: The extent to which scores for patients who have not changed are the same for repeated measurement under several conditions
  2. Validity: The degree to which an instrument measures the construct(s) it purports to measure and
  3. Internal consistency: The degree of the interrelatedness among the items [7]