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Table 3 Associations between exposure to household pesticides during pregnancy with growth rate in the first 6 months of life

From: The effect of non-organophosphate household pesticides exposure during pregnancy on infants birth sizes and growth rate: a cohort study

  Model Linear regression coefficients (95% confidence interval)
Weight gain rate (g/day) Length gain rate (mm/month) HC increment (mm/month) WLG (z-score/day)
Non-Exposed (n = 151)   Reference Reference Reference Reference
Exposed to house hold pesticides (n = 133) Crude − 0.13 (− 1.05;0.79) 0.06 (− 0.10;0.22) − 0.10 (− 0.28;0.07) − 0.03 (− 0.31;0.25)
Model 1 − 0.13 (− 1.05;0.79) 0.04 (− 0.12;0.20) −0.09 (− 0.27;0.09) −0.05 (− 0.34;0.23)
Model 2 −0.20 (− 1.17;0.77) 0.03 (− 0.14;0.19) −0.08 (− 0.27;0.10) −0.06 (− 0.35;0.24)
Exposed to mosquito insecticides only (n = 87) Crude −0.03 (− 1.02;0.96) 0.10 (− 0.06;0.27) −0.12 (− 0.31;0.08) 0.005 (− 0.296;0.306)
Model 1 − 0.01 (− 1.02;0.99) 0.09 (− 0.08;0.25) −0.10 (− 0.30;0.10) 0.007 (− 0.298;0.312)
Model 2 − 0.004 (− 1.04;1.03) 0.07 (− 0.10;0.24) −0.10 (− 0.30;0.10) 0.007 (− 0.307;0.321)
Exposed to pesticides other than mosquito insecticides (n = 15) Crude 0.39 (−1.59;2.38) 0.02 (− 0.31;0.35) −0.29 (− 0.68;0.10) 0.12 (− 0.48;0.74)
Model 1 0.21 (− 1.79;2.21) − 0.01 (− 0.34;0.32) −0.28 (− 0.68;0.11) 0.06 (− 0.55;0.67)
Model 2 0.22 (− 1.81;2.25) − 0.01 (− 0.35;0.32) −0.29 (− 0.68;0.11) 0.07 (− 0.55;0.68)
Exposed to both mosquito insecticides and other pesticides (n = 31) Crude 0.03 (−1.39;1.44) − 0.09 (− 0.32;0.15) 0.12 (− 0.16;0.39) −0.03 (− 0.43;0.43)
Model 1 −0.12 (− 1.15;1.31) −0.12 (− 0.20;0.05) 0.14 (− 0.14;0.42) −0.05 (− 0.49;0.38)
Model 2 −0.03(− 1.54;1.47) −0.17 (− 0.20;0.05) 0.17 (− 0.12;0.47) −0.03 (− 0.49;0.43)
  1. Model 1: adjusted for SES and mother’s age at pregnancy
  2. Model 2: adjusted for SES, mother’s age at pregnancy, breastfed for 6 months, house hold SHS exposure, water sources, fuel sources, garbage burning, and usage of open vehicle