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Table 1 Socio-demographic and general characteristics of the total sample and by-trimester groups, together with scores in coping and stress tests

From: Validation of the Italian version of the Revised Prenatal Coping Inventory (NuPCI) and its correlations with pregnancy-specific stress

  Total sample 1 st trimester 2 nd trimester 3 rd trimester
Participants   211 70 71 70
Age   32.91 (4.95) 33.07 (4.99) 33.13 (5.28) 32.54 (4.58)
Previous pregnancy 0 105 (49.8%) 33 (47.1%) 38 (53.5%) 34 (51.4%)
1 65 (30.8%) 27 (38.6%) 15 (21.1%) 23 (32.9%)
2 31 (14.7%) 9 (12.9%) 12 (16.9%) 10 (14.3%)
3–5 10 (4.7%) 1 (1.4%) 6 (8.5%) 3 (4.3%)
Level of education* University 101 (47.9%) 32 (45.7%) 33 (46.5%) 36 (51.4%)
High school 89 (42.2%) 33 (47.1%) 30 (42.3%) 26 (37.1%)
Middle-school 19 (9.0%) 4 (5.7%) 7 (9.9%) 8 (11.4%)
Primary school 1 (0.5%) 1 (1.4%) - -
Employment status Employed 138 (65.4%) 49 (70%) 42 (59.2%) 47 (67.1%)
Self Employed 20 (9.5%) 5 (7.1%) 10 (14.1%) 5 (7.1%)
Unemployed 53 (25.1%) 16 (22.9%) 19 (26.8%) 18 (25.7%)
Marital status Married 137 (64.9%) 45 (64.3%) 47 (66.2%) 45 (64.3%)
Unmarried 72 (34.1%) 24 (34.3%) 23 (32.4%) 25 (35.7%)
Divorced 2 (0.9%) 1 (1.4%) 1 (1.4%) -
Brief-COPE Adaptive coping 2.69 (0.43) 2.66 (0.48) 2.72 (0.44) 2.70 (0.38)
Maladaptive coping 1.89 (0.32) 1.87 (0.31) 1.93 (0.31) 1.87 (0.33)
Self-distraction 2.52 (0.71) 2.48 (0.72) 2.58 (0.74) 2.49 (0.68)
Active coping 3.18 (0.71) 3.22 (0.64) 3.15 (0.80) 3.18 (0.69)
Denial 1.36 (0.52) 1.44 (0.60) 1.35 (0.52) 1.29 (0.44)
Substance use 1.04 (0.20) 1.03 (0.15) 1.06 (0.29) 1.02 (0.13)
Use of emotional support 2.66 (0.82) 2.61 (0.86) 2.65 (0.78) 2.70 (0.83)
Use of instrumental support 2.76 (0.76) 2.71 (0.84) 2.80 (0.69) 2.76 (0.74)
Behavioral disengagement 1.45 (0.55) 1.51 (0.49) 1.46 (0.63) 1.38 (0.53)
Venting 2.48 (0.76) 2.40 (0.76) 2.57 (0.83) 2.46 (0.69)
Positive reframing 2.83 (0.71) 2.81 (0.67) 2.85 (0.77) 2.85 (0.69)
Planning 3.19 (0.68) 3.09 (0.71) 3.21 (0.74) 3.26 (0.60)
Humor 1.90 (0.71) 1.82 (0.69) 2.04 (0.82) 1.84 (0.58)
Acceptance 3.03 (0.65) 3.01 (0.61) 2.96 (0.69) 3.12 (0.64)
Religion 1.99 (0.99) 1.99 (1.00) 2.06 (1.02) 1.90 (0.94)
Self-blaming 2.50 (0.74) 2.38 (0.70) 2.56 (0.66) 2.57 (0.84)
STAI State scale 37.65 (9.65) 37.84 (9.93) 37.51 (9.24) 37.60 (9.90)
Trait scale 36.37 (8.53) 35.20 (7.62) 35.87 (7.97) 38.06 (9.72)
  1. Mean (and SD) are reported for age in years and for Brief-COPE and STAI scales. Number of observation (and percentages) are reported for the categorical measures. Brief-COPE Brief version of the Coping Orientation to the Problems Experienced; STAI Y form of the State-Tait Anxiety Inventory. * No data were available for one participant in the 2nd trimester group