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Table 2 Sample characteristics by Pregnancy Weight Gain (PWG) Category

From: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain and breastfeeding outcomes: a cross-sectional analysis

  Total Sample Within recommendations Less than recommended Greater than recommended  
N = 1207 N = 372 N = 211 N = 624 P-value
Breastfeeding initiation N (% of total sample) N (% of respective PWG Category)  
 Exclusive breastfeeding 695 (57.6) 227 (61.0) 111 (52.6) 357 (57.2) 0.137
 Combination feedinga 512 (42.4) 145 (39.0) 100 (47.4) 267 (42.8)  
  Median (Interquartile Range)  
Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration (days)b 90 (30–117) 98 (42–120) 90 (28–120) 75 (28–109) 0.004c
Any Breastfeeding Duration (days) 106 (42–123) 110 (60–124) 106 (42–123) 101 (42–123) 0.002c
Pre-pregnancy BMI Category N (% of total sample) N (% of respective PWG Category)  
 Normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) 623 (51.6) 266 (71.5) 111 (52.6) 246 (39.4) < 0.001
 Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) 289 (23.9) 45 (12.1) 35 (16.6) 209 (33.5)  
 Obese (30.0 or higher kg/m2) 295 (24.4) 61 (16.4) 65 (30.8) 169 (27.1)  
  Mean (sd)  
Maternal Age (years) 29.25 (5.70) 30.00 (5.44) 29.19 (5.89) 28.82 (5.75) 0.007d
Maternal Education N (% of total sample) N (% of respective PWG Category)  
 Bachelor’s or more 548 (45.4) 214 (57.5) 83 (39.3) 251 (40.2) < 0.001e
 Some college 313 (25.9) 75 (20.2) 53 (25.1) 185 (29.6)  
 High school or less 345 (28.6) 83 (22.3) 74 (35.1) 188 (30.1)  
 Missingf 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0)  
Race and Ethnicity
 White non-Hispanic 856 (70.9) 290 (78.0) 123 (58.3) 443 (71.0) < 0.001e
 Black non-Hispanic 182 (15.1) 39 (10.5) 47 (22.3) 96 (15.4)  
 Other non-Hispanic 49 (4.1) 20 (5.4) 13 (6.2) 16 (2.6)  
 Hispanic 66 (5.5) 12 (3.2) 16 (7.6) 38 (6.1)  
 Missing f 54 (4.5) 11 (3.0) 12 (5.7) 31 (5.0)  
Income statusg
 Low Income 521 (43.2) 124 (33.3) 108 (51.2) 289 (46.3) < 0.001
Marital status
 Married 785 (65.0) 273 (73.4) 127 (60.2) 385 (61.7) < 0.001
  Mean (sd)  
Parity 0.84 (1.14) 0.82 (1.04) 1.14 (1.39) 0.75 (1.09) < 0.001d
 N Missing (%) f 6 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 5 (0.8)  
Smoking (last 2 years)
 Yes 310 (25.7) 82 (22.0) 45 (21.3) 183 (29.3) 0.011
Infant sex
 Female 577 (47.8) 190 (51.1) 99 (46.9) 288 (46.2) 0.310
Vaginal delivery
 Yes 858 (71.1) 271 (72.8) 158 (74.9) 429 (68.8) 0.157
  1. aHuman milk and formula bAmong those who initiated EBF cp value derived from Kruskal-Wallis test dp value derived from ANOVA test eThese categories were collapsed into dichotomous variables (Bachelor’s or more versus less than Bachelor’s degree and white non-Hispanic versus other, respectively) for multivariate modeling in order to maximize statistical efficiency, and are reported here in detail for descriptive purposes. P-values reported are from chi-square tests utilizing the dichotomous categorization of these variables. fMissing values not included in any statistical tests gPrenatal WIC enrollment and/or Medicaid funded delivery
  2. All subjects in study sample had complete data for variables without a “missing” category, all p values from Chi square test unless otherwise noted