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Table 2 The ultrasonic manifestation and myocardial deformation in the cohort of studies (n = 72)

From: Decreased biventricular myocardial deformation in fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction

  Fetus with LUTO (n = 36) Normal control (n = 36) P
Maternal age, years 30 ± 6 29 ± 4 0.36
GA at initial examination, weeks 21.5 ± 1.2 21.5 ± 1.2 1
EFW at initial examination, g 404.5 ± 89.3 416.2 ± 82.3 0.92
Male, n (%) 34 (94%) 25 (69.4%) 0.01
Obstruction manifestation
 Bladder volume, cm3 42.7 ± 8.6 8.6 ± 3.8 < 0.001
 Keyhole sign, n (%) 18 (50%) 0 < 0.001
 Pelvic diametersa, mm 18 ± 4 2 ± 2 < 0.001
 Ureteral diametersb, mm 4 ± 1 0 < 0.001
 RA-PIc 2.00 ± 0.10 1.97 ± 0.14 0.28
 Renal cortical cysts, n (%) 8 (22.2%) 0 < 0.01
 Oligo-/anhydramnios, n (%) 22 (61.1%) 0 < 0.001
 AFI 42 ± 36 138 ± 26 < 0.001
Echocardiogram
 C/T 0.35 ± 0.06 0.30 ± 0.02 < 0.001
 PE, n (%) 5 (13.9%) 0 0.05
 LV hypertrophy, n (%) 4 (11.1%) 0 0.11
 LV thickness, mm 2.0 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.3 0.09
 RV hypertrophy, n (%) 6 (16.7%) 0 0.03
 RV thickness, mm 2.1 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.2 0.05
 MVR, n (%) 3 (8.3%) 0 0.24
 TVR, n (%) 5 (13.9%) 0 0.05
 MV fusion, n (%) 4 (11.1%) 0 0.11
 TV fusion, n (%) 7 (19.4%) 0 0.01
Myocardial deformation
 LV-S, % -16.03 ± 2.89 -20.21 ± 1.61 < 0.001
 LV-SRs, s− 1 -1.57 ± 0.27 -2.07 ± 0.17 < 0.001
 LV-SRd, s− 1 1.51 ± 0.32 1.95 ± 0.43 < 0.001
 RV-S, % -16.35 ± 2.70 -26.42 ± 1.96 < 0.001
 RV-SRs, s− 1 -1.73 ± 0.27 -2.61 ± 0.81 < 0.001
 RV-SRd, s− 1 1.81 ± 0.26 2.54 ± 0.56 < 0.001
  1. aThe sum of the anteroposterior diameter of the bilateral pelvis; bsum of the bilateral ureteral diameters;cThe mean of the bilateral renal artery pulsatility index;
  2. GA gestational age; EFW estimated fetal weight; RA renal artery; AFI amniotic fluid index; C/T cardiothoracic ratio; PE pericardial effusion; LV left ventricle; RV right ventricle; MVR mitral valve regurgitation; TVR tricuspid valve regurgitation; S strain; SRs strain rate in systole; SRd strain rate in diastole