Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of participants (N = 295)

From: Rural-urban differences in the mental health of perinatal women: a UK-based cross-sectional study

Variable Missing (n) Urban (N = 165), n (%) Rural (N = 130), n (%) Overall (N = 295), n (%) Differences between groups
Age 0     
 24 years or below   23 (13.9%) 11 (8.5%) 34 (11.5%) X2 (4)=6.3, p = .179
 25 years or above   142 (86.1%) 119 (91.5%) 261 (88.5%)
Perinatal stage 0     
 Pregnant   99 (60.0%) 62 (47.7%) 161 (54.6%) X2 (1)=4.4, p = .035*
 Postnatal   66 (40.0%) 68 (52.3%) 134 (45.4%)
N previous pregnancies 0     
 None (current first pregnancy)   69 (41.8%) 46 (35.4%) 115 (39.0%) X2 (5)=4.9, p = .427
 One   41 (24.8%) 43 (26.1%) 84 (28.5%)
 Two or more   55 (33.3%) 41 (31.5%) 96 (32.5%)
N previous births 4     
 None   49 (29.9%) 24 (18.9%) 73 (25.1%) X2 (5)=6.1, p = .298
 One   60 (36.6%) 56 (44.1%) 116 (39.9%)
 Two or more   55 (33.5%) 47 (37.0%) 102 (35.1%)
Ethnic group 0     
 White British   150 (90.9%) 128 (98.5%) 278 (94.2%) X2 (8)=9.2, p = .329
 White other   9 (5.5%) 1 (0.8%) 10 (3.4%)
 Asian/Black/Mixed   6 (3.6%) 1 (0.8%) 5 (1.7%)
 Other   2 (1.2%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.7%)
Highest level of education 1     
 Degree or higher degree   84 (50.9%) 75 (58.1%) 159 (54.1%) X2 (6)=9.4, p = .154
 No degree   81 (49.1%) 54 (41.9%) 135 (45.9%)
Relationship status 0     
 Married or living with partner   152 (92.1%) 121 (93.1%) 273 (92.5%) X2 (2)=1.4, p = .500
 Single or not living with partner   13 (7.9%) 9 (6.9%) 22 (7.5%)
Employment 0     
 In paid employment   129 (78.2%) 110 (84.6%) 239 (81.0%) X2 (6)=8.3, p = .219
 Not in paid employment   36 (21.8%) 20 (15.4%) 56 (19.0%)
IMD decile      
 1st tertile (1–6, most deprived) 0 62 (37.6%) 39 (30.0%) 101 (34.2%) X2 (2)=3.4, p = .178
 2nd tertile (7, 8)   53 (32.1%) 55 (42.3%) 108 (36.6%)
 3rd tertile (9–10, least deprived)   50 (30.3%) 36 (27.7%) 86 (29.2%)
  1. *p < .05; X2 – Based on the Chi-squared test; IQR Interquartile range (skewed data), IMD Index of Multiple Deprivation. Participants indicated their age group out of five groups, not their specific age. As most participants were in the age group 25–34 years, a division per quartile/tertile would have resulted in low number cells, so only two age categories are reported. For similar reasons, only three categories are presented for previous pregnancies/births, and for IMD decile. ‘Asian/Black/Mixed’ includes Asian British, Black British and Mixed White & Black Caribbean. ‘In paid employment’ includes those working full-time, part-time, as a free-lancer, or on maternity/sick leave from paid employment