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Table 3 Comparison of means between groups of pregnant women

From: Impact of individual and neighborhood social capital on the physical and mental health of pregnant women: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

Individual social capital A: Is there someone available to you who shows you love and affection? B: Is there someone whom you can count on for emotional support (discuss problems or help you make a difficult decision)?
Characteristics n M SD p M SD p
Age (years)
 < 35 58,144 2.94 1.22 < 0.001a 3.20 1.12 < 0.001a
 ≥ 35 21,066 3.00 1.20   3.16 1.12  
Marital status
 Unmarried, divorced, or bereaved 2896 2.65 1.27 < 0.001a 2.91 1.22 < 0.001a
 Married or in a common-law relationship 76,314 2.97 1.21   3.20 1.11  
Number of children
 0 36,813 3.01 1.19 < 0.001a 3.22 1.10 < 0.001a
 ≥ 1 42,397 2.91 1.24   3.16 1.13  
Self-reported history of disease
 No 12,416 2.86 1.25 < 0.001a 3.16 1.13 0.001a
 Yes 66,794 2.97 1.21   3.20 1.12  
Obstetric complications
 No 64,957 2.96 1.22 0.041b 3.19 1.12 0.026b
 Yes 14,253 2.94 1.21   3.17 1.12  
Experience of any stressful events
 No 44,535 2.99 1.21 < 0.001a 3.25 1.09 < 0.001a
 Yes 34,675 2.92 1.22   3.11 1.15  
Labor force participation
 No 25,481 2.96 1.23 0.980 3.19 1.13 0.417
 Yes 53,729 2.96 1.21   3.19 1.11  
Mother’s academic history
 Junior high or high school, technical college, or vocational school 46,642 2.82 1.25 < 0.001a 3.10 1.16 < 0.001a
 College, university, or graduate school 32,568 3.15 1.14   3.32 1.05  
Father’s academic history
 Junior high or high school, technical college, or vocational school 50,089 2.87 1.24 < 0.001a 3.13 1.14 < 0.001a
 College, university, or graduate school 29,121 3.11 1.16   3.30 1.07  
Household income (million JPY/year)
 < 4 31,204 2.79 1.26 < 0.001a 3.07 1.17 < 0.001a
 ≥ 4 48,006 3.06 1.18   3.27 1.07  
Response options for A and B: none of the time = 0, a little of the time = 1, some of the time = 2, most of the time = 3, all of the time = 4
ap < 0.01, bp < 0.05
Individual social capital C: How often do you have a desired level of contact with someone whom you feel close to, trust, and can confide in? D: Number of friends or neighbors with whom you can casually share your concerns
Characteristics n M SD p M SD p
Age (years)
 < 35 58,144 2.60 1.08 < 0.001a 1.60 0.51 < 0.001a
 ≥ 35 21,066 2.55 1.07   1.58 0.52  
Marital status
 Unmarried, divorced, or bereaved 2896 2.47 1.11 < 0.001a 1.50 0.55 < 0.001a
 Married or in a common-law relationship 76,314 2.59 1.07   1.60 0.51  
Number of children
 0 36,813 2.61 1.06 < 0.001a 1.61 0.51 < 0.001a
 ≥ 1 42,397 2.57 1.09   1.59 0.51  
Self-reported history of disease
 No 12,416 2.57 1.08 0.010a 1.60 0.51 0.888
 Yes 66,794 2.59 1.07   1.60 0.51  
Obstetric complications
 No 64,957 2.59 1.08 0.768 1.60 0.51 0.270
 Yes 14,253 2.59 1.07   1.59 0.51  
Experience of any stressful events
 No 44,535 2.64 1.07 < 0.001a 1.62 0.50 < 0.001a
 Yes 34,675 2.52 1.08   1.57 0.52  
Labor force participation
 No 25,481 2.62 1.08 < 0.001a 1.59 0.52 < 0.001a
 Yes 53,729 2.58 1.07   1.60 0.51  
Mother’s academic history
 Junior high or high school, technical college, or vocational school 46,642 2.50 1.08 < 0.001a 1.57 0.52 < 0.001a
 College, university, or graduate school 32,568 2.72 1.05   1.64 0.49  
Father’s academic history
 Junior high or high school, technical college, or vocational school 50,089 2.53 1.08 < 0.001a 1.58 0.52 < 0.001a
 College, university, or graduate school 29,121 2.69 1.06   1.62 0.50  
Household income (million JPY/year)
 < 4 31,204 2.50 1.09 < 0.001a 1.56 0.52 < 0.001a
 ≥ 4 48,006 2.65 1.06   1.63 0.50  
Response options for C: none of the time = 0, a little of the time = 1, some of the time = 2, most of the time = 3, all of the time = 4
Response options for D: none = 0, one or two = 1, three or more = 2
ap < 0.01
Neighborhood social capital E: Neighbors trust each other. F: Neighbors help each other.
Characteristics n Mean SD p Mean SD p
Age (years)
 < 35 58,144 1.38 0.91 < 0.001a 1.40 0.93 < 0.001a
 ≥ 35 21,066 1.57 0.87   1.58 0.86  
Marital status
 Unmarried, divorced, or bereaved 2896 1.16 0.94 < 0.001a 1.22 0.96 < 0.001a
 Married or in a common-law relationship 76,314 1.44 0.90   1.46 0.91  
Number of children
 0 36,813 1.24 0.92 < 0.001a 1.25 0.93 < 0.001a
 ≥ 1 42,397 1.60 0.86   1.63 0.86  
Self-reported history of disease
 No 12,416 1.45 0.92 0.018b 1.48 0.93 < 0.001a
 Yes 66,794 1.43 0.90   1.45 0.91  
Obstetric complications
 No 64,957 1.44 0.90 < 0.001a 1.46 0.91 < 0.001a
 Yes 14,253 1.40 0.91   1.42 0.92  
Experience of any stressful events
 No 44,535 1.47 0.90 < 0.001a 1.48 0.91 < 0.001a
 Yes 34,675 1.38 0.91   1.41 0.92  
Labor force participation
 No 25,481 1.54 0.89 < 0.001a 1.56 0.90 < 0.001a
 Yes 53,729 1.38 0.91   1.40 0.92  
Mother’s academic history
 Junior high or high school, technical college, or vocational school 46,642 1.37 0.92 < 0.001a 1.41 0.93 < 0.001a
 College, university, or graduate school 32,568 1.51 0.88   1.51 0.89  
Father’s academic history
 Junior high or high school, technical college, or vocational school 50,089 1.40 0.91 < 0.001a 1.44 0.92 < 0.001a
 College, university, or graduate school 29,121 1.48 0.90   1.47 0.90  
Household income (million JPY/year)
 < 4 31,204 1.36 0.92 < 0.001a 1.40 0.93 < 0.001a
 ≥ 4 48,006 1.47 0.89   1.48 0.90  
Response options for E and F: disagree = 0, somewhat disagree = 1, somewhat agree = 2, agree = 3
ap < 0.01, bp < 0.05