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Table 2 Comparison of means between groups of pregnant women (PCS and MCS scores)

From: Impact of individual and neighborhood social capital on the physical and mental health of pregnant women: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

Score type   PCS score MCS score
Characteristics n M SD p M SD p
Age (years)
 < 35 58,144 45.89 6.12 < 0.001a 49.05 6.22 < 0.001a
 ≥ 35 21,066 44.94 6.44   49.34 6.20  
Marital status
 Unmarried, divorced, or bereaved 2896 46.48 6.28 < 0.001a 47.12 6.73 < 0.001a
 Married or in a common-law relationship 76,314 45.61 6.22   49.21 6.19  
Number of children
 0 36,813 45.84 6.16 < 0.001a 49.17 6.27 0.073
 ≥ 1 42,397 45.46 6.26   49.09 6.18  
Self-reported history of disease
 No 12,416 46.72 5.89 < 0.001a 49.61 5.83 < 0.001a
 Yes 66,794 45.44 6.26   49.04 6.28  
Obstetric complications
 No 64,957 46.02 5.92 < 0.001a 49.36 6.06 < 0.001a
 Yes 14,253 43.88 7.20   48.09 6.78  
Experience of any stressful events
 No 44,535 45.87 6.04 < 0.001a 50.26 5.70 < 0.001a
 Yes 34,675 45.34 6.43   47.68 6.55  
Labor force participation
 No 25,481 46.01 6.22 < 0.001a 49.20 6.15 0.037b
 Yes 53,729 45.46 6.21   49.10 6.25  
Mother’s academic history
 Junior high or high school, technical college, or vocational school 46,642 45.77 6.20 < 0.001a 48.76 6.26 < 0.001a
 College, university, or graduate school 32,568 45.46 6.24   49.66 6.11  
Father’s academic history
 Junior high or high school, technical college, or vocational school 50,089 45.75 6.21 < 0.001a 48.89 6.25 < 0.001a
 College, university, or graduate school 29,121 45.45 6.24   49.55 6.13  
Household income (million JPY/year)
 < 4 31,204 46.10 6.09 < 0.001a 48.62 6.31 < 0.001a
 ≥ 4 48,006 45.34 6.29   49.46 6.14  
Individual social capital
A: Is there someone available to you who shows you love and affection?
 None of the time, a little of the time 9437 45.81 6.25 0.004a 47.49 6.78 < 0.001a
 Some of the time, most of the time, all of the time 69,773 45.61 6.22   49.35 6.11  
B: Is there someone whom you can count on for emotional support (discuss problems or help you make a difficult decision)?
 None of the time, a little of the time 7534 45.61 6.38 0.640 46.67 6.95 < 0.001a
 Some of the time, most of the time, all of the time 71,676 45.64 6.20   49.39 6.08  
C: How often do you have a desired level of contact with someone whom you feel close to, trust, and can confide in?
 None of the time, a little of the time 11,514 45.64 6.26 0.937 47.51 6.72 < 0.001a
 Some of the time, most of the time, all of the time 67,696 45.64 6.21   49.40 6.09  
D: Number of friends or neighbors with whom you can casually share your concerns
 None, one, or two 30,970 45.55 6.27 < 0.001a 48.15 6.47 < 0.001a
 Three or more 48,240 45.70 6.19   49.76 5.97  
Neighborhood social capital
E: Neighbors trust each other.
 Disagree, somewhat disagree 35,732 45.45 6.32 < 0.001a 48.51 6.48 < 0.001a
 Somewhat agree, agree 43,478 45.79 6.13   49.64 5.94  
F: Neighbors help each other.
 Disagree, somewhat disagree 35,306 45.45 6.32 < 0.001a 48.60 6.48 < 0.001a
 Somewhat agree, agree 43,904 45.79 6.14   49.56 5.97  
  1. PCS Physical Component Summary, MCS Mental Component Summary
  2. ap < 0.01, bp < 0.05