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Table 1 Background characteristics of the participants

From: Impact of individual and neighborhood social capital on the physical and mental health of pregnant women: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

Characteristics Respondents n (%)
The 8-item Short-Form Health Survey
 PCS scores: mean (range) 45.64 (5.72–65.45)
 MCS scores: mean (range) 49.13 (12.87–73.33)
Age (years): mean (range) 31.19 (15–47)
Marital status
 Unmarried, divorced, or bereaved 2896 (3.66)
 Married or in a common-law relationship 76,314 (96.34)
Number of children
 0 36,813 (46.48)
 ≥ 1 42,397 (53.52)
Self-reported history of disease
 No 12,416 (15.67
 Yes 66,794 (84.33)
Obstetric complications
 No 64,957 (82.01)
 Yes 14,253 (17.99)
Experience of any stressful events
 No 44,535 (56.22)
 Yes 34,675 (43.78)
Labor force participation
 No 25,481 (32.17)
 Yes 53,729 (67.83)
Mother’s academic history
 Junior high or high school 27,181 (34.32)
 Technical college or vocational school 19,461 (24.57)
 College, university, or graduate school 32,568 (41.12)
Father’s academic history
 Junior high or high school 33,870 (42.76)
 Technical college or vocational school 16,219 (20.48)
 College, university, or graduate school 29,121 (36.76)
Household income (million JPY/year)
 < 2 4200 (5.30)
 2–4 27,004 (34.09)
 4–6 26,364 (33.28)
 6–8 12,819 (16.18)
 8–10 5366 (6.77)
 ≥ 10 3457 (4.36)
Individual social capital
A: Is there someone available to you who shows you love and affection?
 None of the time 3310 (4.18)
 A little of the time 6127 (7.74)
 Some of the time 22,244 (28.08)
 Most of the time 6583 (8.31)
 All of the time 40,946 (51.69)
B: Is there someone whom you can count on for emotional support (discuss prolems or help you make a difficult decision)?
 None of the time 1675 (2.11)
 A little of the time 5859 (7.40)
 Some of the time 15,852 (20.01)
 Most of the time 8171 (10.32)
 All of the time 47,653 (60.16)
C: How often do you have a desired level of contact with someone whom you feel close to, trust, and can confide in?
 None of the time 1198 (1.51)
 A little of the time 10,316 (13.02)
 Some of the time 30,605 (38.64)
 Most of the time 14,794 (18.68)
 All of the time 22,297 (28.15)
D: Number of friends or neighbors with whom you can casually share your concerns
 None 786 (0.99)
 One or two 30,184 (38.11)
 Three or more 48,240 (60.90)
Neighborhood social capital
E: Neighbors trust each other.
 Disagree 16,107 (20.33)
 Somewhat disagree 19,625 (24.78)
 Somewhat agree 36,802 (46.46)
 Agree 6676 (8.43)
F: Neighbors help each other.
 Disagree 15,687 (19.80)
 Somewhat disagree 19,619 (24.77)
 Somewhat agree 36,326 (45.86)
 Agree 7578 (9.57)
  1. PCS Physical Component Summary, MCS Mental Component Summary