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Table 3 Logistic regression analyses demonstrating influence of ASHA workers on institutional delivery in India (N = 8711)

From: Factors influencing institutional delivery and the role of accredited social health activist (ASHA): a secondary analysis of India human development survey 2012

Variables Model 1 95% CI Model 2 95% CI
  Odds ratio   Odds ratio  
    (No exposure = 0; Exposure to ASHA worker = 1)  
Respondent’s Education
(Reference: No education)
 Primary 1.04 (0.78, 1.38) 1.04 (0.79, 1.38)
 Secondary 1.82*** (1.39, 2.40) 1.83*** (1.40, 2.38)
 Higher secondary 2.17** (1.33, 3.55) 2.20** (1.36, 3.58)
 Above higher secondary 3.03*** (1.72, 5.35) 3.23*** (1.89, 5.52)
Spouse’s Education(Reference: No education)
 Primary 0.97 (0.75, 1.26) 0.98 (0.75, 1.29)
 Secondary 1.08 (0.86. 1.35) 1.10 (0.88. 1.38)
 Higher secondary 1.11 (0.76, 1.63) 1.06 (0.73, 1.53)
 Above higher secondary 1.43* (1.01, 2.01) 1.48* (1.05, 2.08)
Caste(Reference: Brahmin)
 Forward/General (except Brahmin) 1.51 (0.92, 2.46) 1.49 (0.94, 2.38)
 Other Backward Classes 1.49* (1.04, 2.14) 1.47* (1.04, 2.08)
 Scheduled Castes 1.38 (0.94, 2.05) 1.32 (0.90, 1.93)
 Scheduled Tribes 0.97 (0.69, 1.37) 0.88 (0.64, 1.22)
Religion
(Reference: Hindu)
 Muslim 0.67* (0.46, 0.97) 0.64* (0.45, 0.92)
 Other 0.78 (0.49, 1.23) 0.88 (0.56, 1.38)
Place of residence
(Reference: Rural)
 Urban 2.00*** (1.58, 2.52) 2.45*** (1.91, 3.14)
Age at marriage
(Reference: Less than 18 years)
 18 years and above 1.26** (1.04, 1.54) 1.26* (1.03, 1.54)
Respondent’s Age 0.95** (0.92, 0.98) 0.95** (0.92, 0.98)
Spouse’s Age 1.04** (1.01, 1.07) 1.04** (1.01, 1.06)
Number of children 0.82*** (0.76, 0.87) 0.80*** (0.75, 0.86)
Annual Household Wage 1.00*** (1.00, 1.00) 1.00*** (1.00, 1.00)
Frequency of antenatal contacts(Reference: Less than 4 contacts)
 4–7 visits 1.72*** (1.48, 1.99) 1.84*** (1.57, 2.15)
 8 or more visits 3.39*** (2.26, 5.08) 3.93*** (2.66, 5.81)
Exposure to ASHA worker(Reference: No)Yes
    3.04*** (2.37, 3.89)
Constant 1.36 (0.74, 2.48) 0.86 (0.47, 1.57)
Observations 8711   8711  
Wald χ2 a 1611.38***   1895.65***  
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; aComputed using unweighted data