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Table 1 List of variables used in analysis

From: Factors influencing institutional delivery and the role of accredited social health activist (ASHA): a secondary analysis of India human development survey 2012

Study variables IHDS response categories Recoded response categories
Dependent variable
Institutional Delivery
“What was place of delivery for your last pregnancy?”
This variable included three categories: Government hospital, private nursing home, home.
‘Home’ used as reference category.
0 = Home1 = Health facility
Independent variables
Number of antenatal care contacts
“How many antenatal care checkups have you had during your last pregnancy?”
Number/Don’t know
‘Less than 4 contacts’ used as reference category.
0 = Less than 4 contacts1 = 4–7 contacts2 = 8 or more contacts
Exposure to ASHA worker Based on whether the respondent answered yes/ ASHA worker to any of these questions: “Where did you get a pregnancy card made?”; “Did you get help from anyone for making a pregnancy card/registration?”; “Who visited you when you were pregnant?”; “Who facilitated or motivated you to go to a health facility for delivery?”; “Who arranged the transportation to take you to the health facility for delivery?”. 0 = No1 = Yes
Control variables
Respondent’s Education This variable included five categories: no education, primary education (pre-primary to the completion of 5th grade of schooling), secondary education (6th grade to the completion of 10th grade); Higher secondary and above higher secondary (beyond 10th grade).
‘No education’ was used as the reference category.
0 = no education1 = primary education 2 = secondary education 3 = Higher secondary 4 = Above higher secondary (beyond 10th grade).
Spouse’s education Same as above  
Caste This variable included five categories: Forward caste (brahmins); Forward castes (excluding brahmins); Other Backward Classes; Scheduled Castes and Schedules Tribes.
‘Forward caste (Brahmin)’ was used as the reference category.
No recoding
Religion This variable included seven categories: Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain and Tribals.
‘Hindu’ was used as the reference category.
0 = Hindu1 = Muslim2 = Other religions
Place of residence This variable included two categories: Rural, Urban
‘Rural’ was used as reference category.
No recoding
Age at marriage Continuous variable representing woman’s age at marriage.
‘Below 18 years’ was used a reference category.
0 = Below 18 years 1 = 18 years and above
Respondent’s age Continuous variable representing respondent’s age. No recoding
Spouse’s age Continuous variable representing spouse’s age. No recoding
Number of children Continuous variable representing number of children born. No recoding
Annual Household Wage Continuous variable representing annual household wage based on the sum of wage and salary incomes across all jobs of all individuals in the household. No recoding