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Table 2 Pre- and during- labour predictors of labour dystocia

From: Pre- and during- labour predictors of dystocia in active phase of labour: a case-control study

Predictors AOR (95% CI) P
1. Pre-labour predictors*
 Low household income 1.46 (1.04 to 2.05) 0.027
 Woman height < 160 cm 2.75 (1.96 to 3.85) < 0.001
 Exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy (Passive smoker vs. no smoker) 2.23 (1.50 to 3.32) < 0.001
 Sexual violence during pregnancy 2.36 (1.26 to 4.39) 0.007
 Weight gain during pregnancy (Ref: normal)
  Over normal 1.65 (1.13 to 2.42) 0.010
  Less than normal 0.51 (0.33 to 0.79) 0.002
 Woman preference for CS (during pregnancy) 2.12 (1.29 to 3.47) 0.003
 Gestational age of 40+ 0–41+ 6 w (Ref: 37+ 0–39+ 6) 1.75 (1.24 to 2.47) 0.002
2. During labour predictors
 Labour induction 4.31)2.61 to 7.11) < 0.001
 Anxiety (Ref: mild)
  Moderate 8.45 (4.33 to 16.49) < 0.001
  Sever 52.54 (25.61 to 107.79) < 0.001
 Woman dehydration (Ref: no)
  3 h or less 2.43 (1.47 to 4.00) 0.001
  More than 3 h 15.41 (3.77 to 63.04) < 0.001
 Remifentanil administration (pain killer) 2.59 (1.32 to 5.09) 0.006
 Insufficient support by staff 7.24 (2.40 to 21.78) < 0.001
3. All variables
 Woman age of 16–20 (Ref: 21–34 year) 0.32 (0.17 to 0.61) < 0.001
 Woman height < 160 cm 1.93 (1.14 to 3.27) 0.014
 Low household income 1.94 (1.16 to 3.25) 0.012
 Labour induction 4.23 (2.48 to 7.22) < 0.001
 Remifentanil administration (pain killer) 3.09 (1.53 to 6.22) 0.002
 Woman dehydration (Ref: no)
  Yes, ≤ 3 h 2.85 (1.68 to 4.83) < 0.001
  Yes, > 3 h 18.67 (3.99 to 87.27) < 0.001
 Anxiety (Ref: mild)
  Moderate 8.56 (4.21 to 17.41) < 0.001
  Sever 58.03 (26.91 to 125.14) < 0.001
 Insufficient support by staff 5.75 (1.85 to 17.93) 0.003
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio; All analysis were done using binary logistic regression with backward (LA) variable selection
  2. * Adjusted for all other pre-labour variables with a relation of p < 0.2 in the primary analysis, and parity (primi- or mulity-parity) and hospital (matching factors), variables of attendance at pregnancy classes, physical and emotional abuse, pre-pregnancy BMI, woman age were removed from the model. P = 0.701 for Hosmer & Lemeshow test of the goodness of fit, Nagelkerkes R2 = 0.25
  3. † Adjusted for all during labour variables with a relation of p < 0.2 in the primary analysis, and parity (primi- or mulity-parity) and hospital (matching factors). No variables were removed from the model. P = 0.205 for Hosmer & Lemeshow test of the goodness of fit, Nagelkerkes R2 = 0.71
  4. ‡ Adjusted for all variables entered in the above models. P = 0.640 for Hosmer & Lemeshow test of the goodness of fit, Nagelkerkes R2 = 0.74