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Table 1 Characteristics of participants (N = 130)

From: A longitudinal study of bonding failure related to aspects of posttraumatic stress symptoms after childbirth among Japanese mothers

Age, y   31.1 ± 4.2
Experience of birth, n (%) Primiparous 45 (34.6)
Multiparous 85 (65.4)
Number of children, n   1.9 ± 0.8
Gestational age, months   38.9 ± 1.1
Birth weight, g   3046 ± 333
Bleeding, ml   331 ± 19
Marital status, n (%) Married 128 (98.5)
Divorced 2 (1.5)
Subjective economic status, n (%) High 10 (7.7) 115 (88.5)
Relatively high 58 (44.6)
Relatively low 47 (36.2)
Low 15 (11.5) 15 (11.5)
Years of education, n (%) > 12 years 85 (65.4) 45 (34.6)
Tertiary 39 (30.0)
Secondary 6 (4.6) 85 (65.4)
Employment, n (%) Full-time 29 (22.3) 86 (66.2)
Part-time 15 (11.5) 44 (33.8)
Unemployed 86 (66.2)
Attachment pattern, n (%) Secure 60 (46.2)  
Dismissive 9 (6.9)
Preoccupied 25 (19.2)
Fearful 36 (27.7)
Infertility treatment, n (%) With treatment 14 (10.8)  
Without treatment 116 (89.2)
Delivery style, n (%) Vaginal birth 114 (87.7) 114 (87.7)
Planned C/S 9 (6.9) 16 (12.3)
Emergency C/S 7 (5.4)
Nutrition, n (%) Breast-feeding 78 (60.0) 78 (60.0)
Mixed 51 (39.2) 52 (40.0)
Milk 1 (0.8)
  1. C/S: caesarean section