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Table 3 Maternal characteristics of White British and South Asian women, stratified by BMI+

From: Antenatal depression and anxiety and early pregnancy BMI among White British and South Asian women: retrospective analysis of data from the Born in Bradford cohort

  Underweight Recommended weight Overweight Obese class 1 Obese class 2 Obese class 3 p-valuep
White British
n = 94
South Asian
n = 242
White British
n = 1514
South Asian n = 1321 White British
n = 1003
South Asian n = 1435 White British
n = 508
South Asian n = 853 White British
n = 264
South Asian n = 325 White British
n = 131
South Asian
n = 134
White British South Asian
Age (mean ± SD) 21.8 ± 0.5 25.2 ± 0.3 25.7 ± 0.2 26.4 ± 0.1 27.4 ± 0.2 28.2 ± 0.1 27.7 ± 0.2 29.0 ± 0.2 27.6 ± 0.3 29.2 ± 0.3 28.2 ± 0.5 30.8 ± 0.5 0.0001** 0.0001**
Education level (n, %)
 None 28 (29.8) 50 (20.7) 329 (21.7) 255 (19.3) 169 (16.8) 321 (22.4) 88 (17.3) 212 (24.9) 55 (20.8) 100 (30.8) 29 (22.1) 49 (36.6) < 0.0001 < 0.0001
 GSCE 43 (45.7) 80 (33.1) 512 (33.8) 392 (29.7) 328 (32.7) 406 (28.3) 173 (34.1) 262 (30.7) 90 (34.1) 102 (31.4) 46 (35.1) 42 (31.3) ** **
 A-level 12 (12.8) 27 (11.2) 247 (16.3) 186 (14.1) 202 (20.1) 202 (14.1) 103 (20.3) 120 (14.1) 58 (22.0) 41 (12.6) 23 (17.6) 14 (10.4)   
 Higher than A-Level 7 (7.4) 76 (31.4) 316 (20.9) 428 (32.4) 210 (20.9) 439 (30.6) 91 (17.9) 223 (26.1) 32 (12.1) 65 (20.0) 22 (16.8) 15 (11.2)   
IMD level (n, %)
 Low deprivation 24 (25.5) 55 (22.7) 765 (50.5) 330 (25.0) 535 (53.3) 349 (24.3) 234 (46.1) 179 (21.0) 95 (36.0) 60 (18.5) 49 (37.4) 21 (15.7) < 0.0001** 0.015*
 High deprivation 70 (74.5) 186 (76.9) 748 (49.4) 991 (75.0) 468 (46.7) 1086 (75.7) 273 (53.7) 674 (79.0) 169 (64.0) 265 (81.5) 82 (62.6) 113 (84.3)   
Smoking status (n, %)
 Yes 56 (59.6) 6 (2.5) 542 (35.8) 48 (3.6) 322 (32.1) 63 (4.4) 165 (32.5) 21 (2.5) 98 (37.1) 14 (4.3) 34 (26.0) 6 (4.5) < 0.0001** 0.181
 No 38 (40.4) 236 (97.5) 970 (64.1) 1273 (96.4) 681 67.9) 1371 (95.5) 343 (67.5) 832 (97.5) 166 (62.9) 311 (95.7) 97 (74.0) 128 (95.5)   
Depression (n, %)
 Yes 37 (39.4) 97 (40.1) 543 (35.9) 555 (42.0) 352 (35.1) 657 (45.8) 179 (35.2) 380 (44.5) 107 (40.5) 137 (42.2) 49 (37.4) 65 (48.5) 0.630 0.212
 No 57 (60.6) 145 (59.9) 971 (64.1) 766 (58.0) 651 (64.9) 778 (54.2) 329 (64.8) 473 (55.5) 157 (59.5) 188 (57.8) 82 (62.6) 69 (51.5)   
Anxiety (n, %)
 Yes 38 (40.4) 95 (39.3) 699 (46.2) 581 (44.0) 510 (50.8) 657 (45.8) 250 (49.2) 405 (47.5) 131 (49.6) 153 (47.1) 73 (55.7) 63 (47.0) 0.065 0.261
 No 55 (58.5) 146 (60.3) 803 (53.0) 726 (55.0) 487 (48.6) 764 (53.2) 257 (50.6) 446 (52.3) 130 (49.2) 171 (52.6) 58 (44.3) 70 (52.2)   
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. GCSE The General Certificate of Secondary Education
  3. IMD Index of Multiple deprivation
  4. *Significant at 0.05 significance level (two-tailed)
  5. **significant at 0.01 significance level (two-tailed)
  6. pT-test for continuous variable and chi-squared with Fishers exact (where cell count < 5) for categorical variables
  7. +White British BMI categories: Underweight, < 18.5 kg/m2; recommended weight, 18.5–24.9 kg/m2; overweight, 25–29.9 kg/m2; obese, ≥30 kg/m2; obese class 1, 30.0–34.9 kg/m2; obese class 2, 35.0–39.9 kg/m2; obese class 3, ≥40.0 kg/m2 South Asian BMI categories: underweight, < 18.5 kg/m2; recommended weight, 18.5–22.9 kg/m2; overweight, 23–27.49 kg/m2; obese, ≥27.5 kg/m2; obese class 1, 27.5–32.49 kg/m2, obese class 2, 32.5–37.49 kg/m2, obese class 3, ≥37.5 kg/m2
  8. Sum of percentages may not add to 100% due to missing/incomplete data, missing data not included in chi-squared analysis