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Table 4 Summary of studies conducted on the effect of postnatal depression on infant health outcomes in low and middle-income countries, 2007–2017 (N = 14)

From: Postnatal depression and its association with adverse infant health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, P. year Country, income Study setting Study design Sample size weeks Screening tool used Infant adverse health outcomes Estimate (RR/OR) LCI UCI
Hasselmann MH et al. 2008 Brazil, Middle HI cohort 429 4 to 8 weeks EPDS Non-EB 1.21 1.02 1.45
Surkan PJ et al. 2008 Brazil, Middle HI cross sectional 595 6 to 12 months CES-D Short stature 1.8 1.1 2.9
Machado MC et al. 2014 Brazil, Middle HI longitudinal 168 1 to 3 months EPDS Non-EB 1.61 1.19 2.19
Gausia K et al. 2010 Bangladish, Low Community longitudinal 318 6 to 8 weeks EPDS Diarrhea 1.74 1.25 3.42
Rahman A et al. 2016 Pakistan, Low Community cohort 279 6 months DSM-IV Non-EB 1.42 0.98 2.06
Upadhyay AK et al. 2016 India, Middle Community longitudinal 1833 5 to 21 months SRQ-20 Stunting 1.53 1.21 1.92
Islam MJ et al. 2017 Bangladish, Low Community cross sectional 426 6 months EPDS Non-EB 5 2.27 11.11
Saeed Q et al. 2016 Pakistan, Low Community cross sectional 325 2 years AKUAD Stunting 3.15 1.91 5.18
Underweight 3.26 1.99 5.34
Adewuya AO et al. 2007 Nigeria, Middle HI case control 242 6 to 12 weeks SCID-NP Poor weight 3.41 1.3 8.52
Poor height 3.28 1.03 10.47
Guo N et al. 2013 Ghana, Middle HI Longitudinal 654 3 months PHQ Febrile illnesses 1.32 1.01 1.74
Guo N et al. 2013 Côte d’Ivoire Middle Febrile illnesses 1.57 1.20 2.07
Ashaba Set al 2013 Uganda, Low HI Case control 166 1–5 yrs (M.I.N.I.) Malnutrition 2.4 1.11 5.18
Weobong B et al. 2017 Ghana, Middle Community Longitudinal 16,560 4 to 12 weeks DSM-IV Diarrhea 1.8 1.45 2.14
cough 1.49 1.28 1.7
Fever 1.8 1.49 2.11
Vomiting 1.98 1.26 2.71
Madeghe BA et al. 2016 Kenya, Middle HI Cross-sectional 200 6 to 14 weeks EPDS Non-EB 6.14 2.45 13.36
Underweight 4.4 1.91 11.93
Wemakor A et al. 2016 Ghana, Middle HI Cross-sectional 384 0–59 months CED-S Stunting 2.48 1.29 4.77
Ndokera R et al. 2008 Zambia, Middle community Cross-sectional 278 2–12 months CED serious illness 1.64 0.51 5.24
diarrhea 1.32 0.71 2.48
underweight 1.48 0.35 6.22
Maureen M Black et al. 2009 Bangladish, Low Community cross sectional 221 6–12 months CED Stunting 2.17 1.24 3.81
Benett IM et al. 2015 India, Middle community Longitudinal 1930 12 months CED Stunting 1.18 1.03 1.35
Underweight 1.11 0.97 1.26
Ethiopia, Low 1885 Stunting 0.91 0.81 1.02
Underweight 1.01 0.89 1.15
Peru, Low 1946 Stunting 1.06 0.93 1.22
underweight 0.85 0.6 1.19
Vietnam Low 1961 Stunting 0.91 0.81 1.02
Underweight 1.29 1.03 1.62