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Table 2 Sub-analysis of postnatal depression prevalence in low and middle-income countries (N = 58, 2007–2017), (random effect model, result after a trim and fill analysis)

From: Postnatal depression and its association with adverse infant health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable of sub-analysis Number of studies Sample size Pooled prevalence; 95%CI
Year of publication
 2007–2009 15 5752 25.1 (18.1–32.2)
 2010–2012 10 4840 18.2 (12.8–23.5)
 2013–2015 20 14,000 19.6 (15.8–23.5)
 2016–2017 (two years) 13 38,701 25.6 (19.9–27.2)
Income of the country
 Low income 11 4173 25.8 (17.9–33.8)
 Middle income 47 59,120 20.7 (18.4–23.1)
Study setting
 Health institution 38 21,717 22.1 (18.8–25.3)
 Community based 20 41,576 20.9 (17.9,23.9)
Time of screening
 Birth to four weeks 5 16,487 17.6 (7.8–27.5)
 5 weeks to 10 weeks 22 26,599 21.9 (18.0–25.7)
 11 weeks to 16 weeks 12 7683 17.9 (14.1–21.8)
 17 weeks to 96 weeks 19 12,524 25.2 (19.9–30.5)
A tool used for depression screening
 EPDS 41 25,013 22.6 (19.6,25.7)
 PHQ-9 and SRQ-20 7 17,479 14.4 (6.2–22.6)
 DSM-IV 2 17,061 8.6 (1.6–18.8)
 Other/BDI, CED, SCID-I, MINI/ 8 3740 28.3 (16.9–39.8)
Sample size
  < =1091 49 19,143 23.4 (20.2–26.5)
  > 1091 9 44,150 14.4 (10.6–18.1)
  1. EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, BDI Beck depression inventory, CED Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, SCID-I structured clinical interview for the DSM-IV depression module, MINI Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, PHQ-9 patient health questioner, SRQ-20 self reporting questionnaire