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Table 1 Summary of studies conducted on postnatal depression and associated factors in low and middle-income countries (2007–2017), N = 58

From: Postnatal depression and its association with adverse infant health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, P. year Year Country, income Study setting Sample size Time of assessment Tool used Prevalence
Dindar I et al. 2007 2007 Middle HI 679 birth to 48 weeks EPDS 25.6%
Ege E et al. 2008 2008 Middle community 364 6 to 48 weeks EPDS 33.2%
Flores-Quijano ME et al., 2008 2008 Middle HI 163 2 to 12 weeks EPDS 24.5%
Hasselmann MH et al., 2008 2008 Middle HI 429 birth to 8 weeks EPDS 35.8%
Tannous L et al., 2008 2008 Middle community 271 6 to 8 weeks EPDS 20.7%
Durat and Kutlu, 2010 2009 Middle HI 126 birth to 48 weeks EPDS 23.8%
Yagmur Y et al., 2010 2010 Middle community 730 birth to 48 weeks EPDS 21.0%
Botino M et al., 2012 2012 Middle HI 811 birth to 20 weeks EPDS 24.3%
Goker A et al., 2012 2012 Middle HI 318 4 to 48 weeks EPDS 31.4%
Pocan Ag et al., 2013 2013 Middle HI 187 4 to 6 weeks EPDS 28.9%
Melo Jr. EF et al., 2012 2012 Middle HI 555 4 to 6 weeks EPDS 10.8%
Mathisen SE et al. 2013 2013 Middle HI 87 4 to 6 weeks EPDS 37.2%
Serhan N et al. 2013 2012 Middle community 110 8 to 24 weeks EPDS 9.1%
de Castro et al 2015 2014 Middle HI 604 birth to 36 weeks EPDS 10.6%
Lara MA et al., 2015 2014 Middle HI 210 24 weeks SCID-I 13.4%
Corrêa H et al., 2016 2016 Middle HI 3060 birth to 48 weeks EPDS 19.5%
Robert A et al., 2016 2016 Middle HI 194 birth to 6 weeks EPDS 40.2%
Ho-Yen SD et al. 2007 2007 Low community 426 4 to five weeks EPDS 4.9%
Baghianimoghadam et al, 2009 2007 Middle HI 120 1 to 16 weeks BDI 58.8%
Gao L et al., 2009 2008 Middle HI 130 6 to 8 weeks EPDS 13.8%
Kadir AA, et al., 2009 2009 Middle HI 293 4 to 6 weeks EPDS 27.3%
Wan EY et al., 2009 2009 Middle HI 342 6 to 8 weeks EPDS 15.5%
Petrosyan D, et al.,2011 2011 Middle HI 437 3 months EPDS 14.4%
Ahmed HM et al., 2012 2012 Middle HI 1000 6 to 8 weeks EPDS 28.4%
Hegde S et al. 2012 2012 Middle HI 150 6 to 14 weeks EPDS 15.5%
Zainal NZ et al. 2012 2012 Middle HI 411 6 to 8 weeks MINI 6.8%
Swapan G et al. 2013 2013 Middle HI 202 6 weeks PRIME MD 15.8%
Panyayong B et al., 2013 2013 Middle community 1731 6 to 8 weeks EPDS 8.4%
Abdollahi F et al., 2014 2014 Middle HI 1801 8 to 12 weeks EPDS 4.5%
Deng AW et al., 2014 2014 Middle community 1823 4 weeks EPDS 27.4%
El-Hachem C et al. 2014 2014 Middle HI 228 4 weeks EPDS 12.0%
Giri RK et al. 2015 2015 Low HI 346 6 to 10 weeks EPDS 30.0%
Yusuff ASM et al. 2015 2015 Middle HI 2072 4 to 24 weeks EPDS 14.3%
Murray L et al. 2015 2015 Middle HI 431 4 to 24 weeks EPDS 18.1%
Shivalli S et al. 2015 2015 Middle HI 102 4 to 6 weeks EPDS 31.4%
Abdollahi et al. 2014 2014 Middle HI 1910 12 weeks EPDS 19.0%
Safadi RR et al. 2016 2016 Low HI 315 12 weeks PHQ-9 25.0%
Iranpour S et al. 2017 2017 Middle community 360 12 weeks EPDS 34.8%
Liu S et al. 2017 2017 Middle community 882 4 weeks EPDS 6.7%
Ramchandani PG et al. 2009 2008 Middle community 1035 24 weeks PDQ 16.4%
Stewart RC et al. 2010 2009 Middle HI 501 36 weeks DSM-IV 13.9%
Hassanein I et al. 2014 2014 Low Hi 290 12 weeks EPDS 39.0%
Mohammed ES et al. 2014 2014 Low community 200 56 weeks EPDS 49.5%
Khalifa DS et al. 2015 2015 Low HI 300 12 weeks EPDS 9.2%
Stellenberg E et al. 2015 2016 Middle community 159 6 to 14 weeks EPDS 50.3%
Weobong B et al. 2013 2016 Middle community 13, 360 4 weeks PHQ-9 3.8%
Shamu S et al., 2008 2016 Low HI 842 6 weeks CES-D 21.4%
Azale A et al. 2016 2016 Low Community 385 24 weeks PHQ_9 12.1%
Surkan PJ et al. 2009 2009 Middle HI 595 24 to 48 weeks CES-D 56.0%
Machado MC et al. 2014 2014 Middle HI 168 4 t0 12 weeks EPDS 16.1%
Gausia K et al. 2010 2010 Low Community 318 6 to 8 weeks EPDS 20.1%
Upadhyay AK et al. 2016 2016 Middle Community 1833 20 to 84 weeks SRQ-20 29.8%
Islam MJ et al. 2017 2016 Low Community 426 24 weeks EPDS 35.2%
Saeed Q et al. 2016 2016 Low Community 325 96 weeks AKUADS 40.0%
Ndokera R et al. 2008 2008 Middle community 278 8 to 48 weeks SRQ-20 9.7%
Guo N et al. 2013 (Ghana) 2013 Middle HI 654 12 weeks PHQ_9 8.9%
Guo N et al. 2013(Ivory Coast) 2013 Middle HI 654 12 weeks PHQ_9 11.8%
Weobong B et al. 2015 2017 Middle Community 16,560 4 to 12 weeks DSM-IV 3.5%
  1. HI health institution, PDQ Pitt depression questionnaire, AKUADS Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale> = 20, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, BDI Beck depression inventory, CED Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, SCID-I Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV depression module, MINI Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, PHQ-9 patient health questioner, SRQ-20 Self Reporting Questionnaire