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Table 2 Characteristics of participants at the baseline interview

From: Experiences of an earthquake during pregnancy, antenatal mental health and infants’ birthweight in Bhaktapur District, Nepal, 2015: a population-based cohort study

Characteristics Included (n = 469) Not included (n = 28) p-value
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Age (years), mean (SD) 26.5 (4.8) 24.9 (5.2) 0.05
 Body mass index during late pregnancy, mean (SD) 27.1 (3.8) 25.4 (3.8) 0.01
Education, n %    < 0.001
 No formal/ primary education 86 (18.3) 17 (60.7)  
 Secondary and above education 383 (81.7) 11 (39.3)  
Having income-generating work, n % 152 (32.4) 8 (28.6) 0.8
Consume chewing tobacco/smoking, n % 12 (2.6) 7 (25.0) < 0.001
Alcohol consumption, n % 118 (25.2) 7 (25.0) 1.0
Family structure, n %    0.3
 Joint/extended family 234 (49.9) 11 (39.3)  
 Nuclear family 235 (50.1) 17 (60.7)  
Education of partners, n %    < 0.001
 No formal/ primary education 51 (10.9) 13 (46.4)  
 secondary and above education 418 (89.1) 15 (53.6)  
Partners with income-generating work, n % 437 (93.2) 27 (96.4) 1.0
Consume chewing tobacco/smoking by partner, n % 157 (33.5) 20 (71.4) < 0.001
Alcohol consumption by partner, n % 239 (51.0) 19 (67.9) 0.1
Household wealth, mean (SD) .09 (2.03) −1.53 (1.66) < 0.001
Intimate partner relationship
 Quality of relationship with an intimate partner, n %    0.002
  Least optimal (< 28 RAS score) 105 (22.4) 14 (50.0)  
  Optimal (> 28 RAS score) 364 (77.6) 14 (50.0)  
Any lifetime experience of intimate partner controlling behaviour, n % 163 (34.8) 15 (50.0) 0.1
Any lifetime experience of intimate partner emotional violence, n % 191 (40.7) 17 (60.7) 0.05
Any lifetime experience of intimate partner physical and or sexual violence, n % 109 (23.2) 16 (57.1) < 0.001
Any lifetime experiences of any intimate partner violence, n % 270 (57.6) 20 (71.4) 0.2
Reproductive characteristics
History of pregnancy, n %
 Nulliparous 211 (45.0) 9 (32.1) 0.2
 Two or more pregnancies 258 (55.0) 19 (67.9)  
History of miscarriage/abortion, n % 85 (18.1) 7 (25.0) 0.3
Taking iron tablet during current pregnancy, n % 449 (95.7) 20 (71.4) < 0.001
The good foetal health, n % 447 (95.3) 24 (85.7) 0.05
Unwelcome/inconvenient pregnancy, n % 61 (13.0) 10 (35.7) 0.003
Attended antenatal check-up for current pregnancy 466 (99.4) 25 (89.3) 0.003
Number of the antenatal visit for current pregnancy    < 0.001
 none 3 (0.6) 3 (10.7)  
 once 8 (1.7) 2 (7.1)  
 twice 15 (3.2) 5 (17.9)  
 Three times 33 (7.0) 5 (17.9)  
 Four or more times 410 (87.4) 13 (46.4)  
Sex of index foetus    0.7
 Boy 262 (55.9) 14 (60.9)  
 Girl 207 (44.1) 9 (39.1)  
Number of children, n %    0.6
 None 246 (52.5) 13 (46.4)  
 One or more 223 (47.5) 15 (53.6)  
Length of gestation at baby birth (weeks), mean (SD) 39.9 (1.5) 39.1 (2.5) 0.2
Earthquake experiences, mean (SD) 3.3 (1.3) 3.6 (1.3) 0.2
Having practical/emotional social support, n % 348 (74.2) 18 (64.2) 0.3
EPDS, mean (SD) 8.0 (5.1) 10.6 (6.7) 0.06
EPDS total score categories, n %    0.2
  < 9 score 289 (61.6) 14 (50.0)  
 10 to 12 score 81 (17.3) 4 (14.3)  
  ≥ 13 score 99 (21.1) 10 (35.7)  
  1. Note. ‘Included’ means data included for final analysis; ‘not included’ means data not included for final analysis (loss to follow up)
  2. n = number; % = percentage; SD = standard deviation; EPDS = Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale