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Table 3 Regression models with significant (p < 0.05) association of inflammatory markers and IGFBP-1 concentrations with maternal and neonatal outcomes

From: Metformin and insulin treatment of gestational diabetes: effects on inflammatory markers and IGF-binding protein-1 – secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial

Independent variable Outcome β-estimate [95% CI] (p-value) n total
Baseline
 non-pIGFBP-1 total GWG (kg/SD) −1.2 [−2; −0.64] (< 0.001)* 201
 MMP-8 late GWG (kg/SD) 0.41 [0.022; 0.77] (0.035) 202
 non-pIGFBP-1 late GWG (kg/SD) 0.45 [−0.87; −0.13] (0.021) 202
 hsCRP length of gestation (weeks/SD) 0.2 [0.028; 0.36] (0.044) 202
 high-pIGFBP-1 induction of labor (OR/SD)† 0.67 [0.48; 0.92] (0.0094) 202
 non-pIGFBP-1 birth weight (SD/SD) −0.15 [−0.32; −0.052] (0.027) 198
36 gestational weeks
 non-pIGFBP-1 total GWG (kg/SD) −1.1 [−1.8; −0.52] (0.0027)* 188
 non-pIGFBP-1 late GWG (kg/SD) −0.55 [−0.96; −0.21] (0.0069) 189
 non-pIGFBP-1 cesarean section (OR/SD)‡ 0.49 [0.24; 0.84] (0.043) 189
 MMP-8 birth weight (SD/SD) −0.17 [−0.34; −0.037] (0.022) 185
  1. Both metformin and insulin treated patients were included. Induction of labor was performed in 92 and cesarean section in 26 women. Data is given as regression β-estimates or odds ratios (OR) in respect to one SD change of the predictor [95% confidence interval, CI] (p-value). The reference groups for binary outcomes were no induction of labor (†) and vaginal delivery (‡). SD = standard deviation, GWG = (maternal) gestational weight gain, pIGFBP-1 = phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1, MMP-8 = matrix metalloproteinase 8, hsCRP = high sensitivity CRP. *p < 0.0045 (Bonferroni)