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Table 2 Change in concentrations of inflammatory markers and IGFBP-1 phosphoisoforms from baseline to 36 gestational weeks

From: Metformin and insulin treatment of gestational diabetes: effects on inflammatory markers and IGF-binding protein-1 – secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial

Variable Metformin and insulin combined Metformin Insulin p-value for comparison of changes (metf vs ins)
n 179 94 85  
  median/mean (95% CI) p-value median/mean (95% CI) p-value median/mean (95% CI) p-value  
Inflammation
 hsCRP (mg/L) −0.47 [−1.3; −0.014] 0.011 −0.45 [−1.7; 0.16] 0.028 −0.47 [−1.8; 0.093] 0.18 0.72
 IL-6 (ng/L) 0.70 [0.20; 1.40] 0.002 0.85 [0.50; 1.8] 0.002 0.62 [−0.19; 1.4] 0.13‡ 0.31
 MMP-8 (μg/L) 0.0 [−2.0; 0.80] 0.50 −0.70 [−2.0; 1.0] 0.76 0.70 [−2.0; 2.6] 0.20 0.28
 GlycA (mmol/L) 0.11 [0.089; 0.13] < 0.0001 0.15 [0.11; 0.18] < 0.0001‡ 0.091 [0.064; 0.12] < 0.0001‡ 0.020
IGFBP-1
 Non-phosphorylated (μg/L) 17.0 [13.0; 20.5] < 0.0001 21.0 [14.0; 26.0] < 0.0001 13.4 [7.9; 18.9] < 0.0001‡ 0.008
 Low-phosphorylated (μg/L) 6.0 [4.0; 7.9] < 0.0001 6.0 [3.6; 7.5] < 0.0001 4.0 [−2.0; 4.0] 0.021 0.081
 High-phosphorylated (μg/L) 300 [190; 410] < 0.0001‡ 260 [110; 420] 0.001‡ 340 [180; 500] < 0.0001‡ 0.48†
  1. Median/mean change from baseline to 36 gestational weeks [95% confidence interval (CI)]. Positive values indicate increase and negative values decrease. p-values are given for the one-sample t-test (indicated with ‡) or Wilcoxon’s signed rank test (comparisons not indicated by ‡). For comparison of changes between metformin and insulin groups, Mann-Whitney’s U-test or the t-test (indicated with †) was used. hsCRP = high sensitivity CRP, IL-6 = interleukin 6, MMP-8 = matrix metalloproteinase 8, GlycA = glycoprotein acetylation, IGFBP-1 = insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1. n-values for GlycA are 190, 99 and 91 for combined, metformin and insulin groups, respectively