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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Metformin and insulin treatment of gestational diabetes: effects on inflammatory markers and IGF-binding protein-1 – secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial

Variable Metformin n Insulin n p-value
Patients characteristics
 Age (years) 31.9 ± 5.01 109 32.0 ± 5.47 107 0.89
 Smoking 9 (8.6) 105 17 (16.0) 106 0.099
 Primipara 42 (38.5) 109 49 (45.8) 107 0.28
 Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 29.5 ± 5.91 109 28.9 ± 4.71 107 0.41
Glucose metabolism
 HbA1c% at OGTT 5.48 ± 0.34 109 5.51 ± 0.34 107 0.49†
 HbA1c at OGTT (mmol/mol) 36.3 ± 3.69   36.7 ± 3.72   
 HbA1c% at 36 gw 5.68 ± 0.33 101 5.69 ± 0.36 95 0.82
 HbA1c at 36 gw (mmol/mol) 38.5 ± 3.63   38.6 ± 3.89   
 OGTT fasting (mmol/L) 5.52 ± 0.55 109 5.57 ± 0.42 107 0.44
 OGTT 1 h (mmol/L) 11.2 ± 1.49 109 11.2 ± 1.24 107 0.61†
 OGTT 2 h (mmol/L) 8.33 ± 1.76 108 7.91 ± 1.75 106 0.076
 C-peptide at baseline (nmol/L) 1.05 ± 0.33 103 1.05 ± 0.29 101 0.90†
Pregnancy outcomes
 Gestational hypertension 2 (1.8) 109 4 (3.7) 107 0.44‡
 Preeclampsia 5 (4.6) 109 10 (9.3) 107 0.19‡
 Assisted vaginal delivery 9 (8.3) 109 8 (7.5) 107 0.83
 Cesarean section 15 (13.8) 109 18 (16.8) 107 0.53
 Induction of labor 41 (37.6) 109 58 (54.2) 107 0.014
 Gestational weight gain (kg) 7.97 ± 5.24 108 7.82 ± 5.27 107 0.83
 Weight gain in late gestation (kg) 1.79 ± 2.62 109 2.15 ± 2.97 107 0.35
 Gw at delivery 39.2 ± 1.40 109 39.4 ± 1.58 107 0.43
Neonatal outcomes
 Birth weight (g) 3610 ± 490 109 3590 ± 450 107 0.78
 Birth weight (SD) 0.17 ± 1.05 105 0.15 ± 0.96 107 0.91
 Birth weight (centiles) 54.8 ± 28.9 105 54.3 ± 28.9 107  
 Macrosomia 5 (4.6) 109 1 (0.9) 107 0.21‡
 Birth weight < 10th percentile 12 (11.4) 105 9 (8.4) 107 0.46
 Birth weight > 90th percentile 15 (14.3) 105 17 (15.9) 107 0.74
 Admission to NICU 33 (30.1) 108 39 (36.4) 107 0.36
 Newborn I.V. glucose 25 (23.1) 108 25 (23.6) 106 0.94
  1. Data is shown as mean ± SD or n (%). The p-value is given for the t-test or the Mann-Whitney U (indicated with †) and for categorical data for the χ2-test or Fisher’s exact test (indicated with ‡). The number of mothers with clinical variables varied slightly due to missing data for some variables. OGTT = oral glucose tolerance test, gw = gestational weeks, SD = standard deviation, NICU = neonatal intensive care unit, I.V. = intravenous. Birth weight in SD and centiles were adjusted for Finnish population growth charts. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight > 4500 g or > 2 SD