Skip to main content

Table 1 Background characteristics of the survey participants

From: Associations of malaria, HIV, and coinfection, with anemia in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study

Characteristics All participants
(n = 947), No. (%)
Anemia = Yes
(n = 458), No. (%)
Anemia = No
(n = 489), No. (%)
p-value
Age, mean (SD), y 28.8 (5.9) 29.0 (6.0) 29.1 (5.8) 0.1202
Age Categories (y)     0.6406
 15–19 34 (4) 20 (59) 14 (41)  
 20–24 204 (22) 105 (51) 99 (49)  
 25–29 288 (30) 140 (49) 148 (55)  
 30–34 253 (27) 115 (45) 138 (55)  
 35–39 120 (4) 53 (44) 67 (56)  
 40–44 42 (4) 22 (52) 20 (48)  
 45–49 6 (1) 3 (50) 3 (50)  
Malaria     0.0014
 Positive 298 (31) 167 (56) 131 (44)  
 Negative 649 (69) 291 (45) 358 (55)  
HIV infection status     0.3385
 Positive 13 (1) 8 (62) 5 (38)  
 Negative 934 (99) 450 (48) 484 (52)  
Malaria-HIV Category     0.001
 Malaria only 293 (31) 164 (56) 129 (44)  
 HIV only 8 (0.8) 5 (62.5) 3 (37.5)  
 Malaria-HIV coinfection 5 (0.5) 3 (60) 2 (40)  
 No infection 641 (68) 286 (45) 355 (55)  
Hemoglobin mean (SD), g/L, 11.0 (1.7) 9.7 (1.2) 12.2 (1.0) < 0.0001
Insecticide Treated Nets     0.8073
 Yes 503 (93) 249 (49.5) 254 (50.5)  
 No 40 (7) 19 (47.5) 21 (52.5)  
Intermittent Preventive Treatment     0.003
 Yes 453 (48) 242 (53) 211 (47)  
 No 487 (52) 213 (44) 274 (56)  
Education level     0.55
 No formal schooling 348 (37) 175 (50) 173 (50)  
 Primary 322 (34) 159 (49) 163 (51)  
 Secondary 261 (28) 117 (45) 144 (55)  
 More than secondary 16 (2) 7 (44) 9 (56)  
Household wealth quintile     0.43
 Lowest 210 (22) 110 (52) 100 (48)  
 Second 180 (19) 90 (50) 90 (50)  
 Middle 189 (20) 86 (45.5) 103 (54.5)  
 Fourth 183 (19) 91 (50) 92 (50)  
 Highest 185 (20) 81 (44) 104 (56)  
Place of residence     0.35
 Urban 316 (33) 146 (46) 170 (54)  
 Rural 631 (67) 312 (49) 319 (51)  
Iron Supplementation     0.01
 Less than 90 days 714 (75) 329 (46) 385 (54)  
 Equal to or greater than 90 days 233 (25) 129 (55) 104 (45)  
Marital Status     0.13
 Not married 9 (1) 2 (22) 7 (78)  
 Married 913 (96) 447 (49) 466 (51)  
 Divorced 25 (3) 9 (36) 16 (64)  
Births in the last 5 years     0.88
 2 or less 913 (96) 442 (48) 471 (52)  
 More than 2 34 (4) 16 (47) 18 (53)  
Currently Breastfeeding status     0.96
 Yes 105 (11) 51 (49) 54 (51)  
 No 842 (89) 407 (48) 435 (52)  
Country     0.0007
 Burundi 246 (26) 103 (42) 143 (58)  
 The Democratic republic of the Congo 302 (32) 127 (42) 175 (58)  
 Ghana 107 (11) 58 (54) 49 (46)  
 The Gambia 49 (5) 31 (63) 18 (37)  
 Mali 88 (9) 50 (57) 38 (43)  
 Senegal 71 (8) 38 (54) 33 (46)  
 Togo 84 (9) 51 (61) 33 (39)