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Table 2 Outcomes following outpatient vs. inpatient induction: main analysis

From: Inpatient versus outpatient induction of labour: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome Studies Outpatient events Inpatient events Estimate (95% CI) I2
Maternal morbidity and patient-reported outcomes
 Chorioamnionitis during labour 6 74/839 (8.82%) 68/834 (8.15%) RR 1.09 (0.80, 1.48) 0
 Maternal hyperstimulation 5 12/858 (1.40%) 17/865 (1.97%) RR 0.72 (0.21, 2.41) 35.80
 Postpartum haemorrhage > 500 mL (vaginal births) 4 132/709 (18.62%) 123/715 (17.20%) RR 1.10 (0.89, 1.37) 0
 Mean hospital anxiety-depression score 2 NA NA MD −0.045 points (− 0.32, 0.23) 5.97
Fetal and neonatal outcomes
 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Admissions 8 76/1269 (5.55%) 82/1244 (6.59%) RR 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) 0
 5-min Apgar score < 7 5 22/994 (2.21%) 15/979 (1.53%) RR 1.39 (0.73, 2.65) 0
 Meconium stained amniotic fluid 4 129/724 (17.82%) 123/728 (16.90%) RR 1.06 (0.85, 1.32) 0
 Uterine hyperstimulation 4 12/643 (1.87%) 10/632 (1.58%) RR 1.12 (0.47, 2.69) 0
 Perinatal mortality 3 1/691 (0.14%)a 0/714 (0%) RR 1.65 (0.20, 13.32) 0
 Febrile morbidity or Antibiotic requirement 3 29/518 (5.60%) 31/499 (6.21%) RR 0.82 (0.29, 2.30) 25.02
Suspicious fetal heart tracing 2 61/199 (30.65%) 43/201 (21.39%) RR 1.43 (1.10, 1.86) 0
 Hypoxic ischemic Encephalopathy 2 3/626 (0.48%) 3/649 (0.46%) RR 1.02 (0.23, 4.48) 0
 Respiratory problems 2 17/444 (3.83%) 18/431 (4.18%) RR 0.92 (0.48, 1.75) 0
Labour outcomes
 Caesarean delivery 9 280/1319 (21.23%) 279/1295 (21.54%) RR 0.96 (0.77, 1.19) 40.16
 Spontaneous vaginal birth 8 495/1258 (39.35%) 484/1245 (38.88) RR 1.02 (0.88, 1.19) 67.58
 Assisted vaginal birth 8 231/1258 (18.36%) 225/1245 (18.07%) RR 1.03 (0.85, 1.25) 12.93
 Cervical priming time 4 NA NA MD 25.87 min (− 142.72, + 194.45) 82.06
 Participants entering labour or delivery within 24 h of induction 4 221/643 (34.37%) 230/632 (36.39%) RR 0.93 (0.71, 1.22) 56.59
 Mean length of active labour (vaginal births) 2 NA NA MD 12.42 h (−29.51, 54.35) 0
Resource-related outcomes
 Need for oxytocin infusion 6 615/1128 (54.52%) 453/1116 (40.59%) RR 1.31 (0.95, 1.82) 93.12
 Epidural use 5 605/1078 (56.12%) 395/1078 (36.66%) RR 1.32 (0.84, 2.07) 96.01
 Total hospital admission time until delivery 5 NA NA MD − 171.50 min (− 475.98, + 132.97) 90.93
 Mean duration oxytocin infusion 5 NA NA MD 43.87 min (−64.76, + 150.50) 82.58
Mean length of hospital stay 4 NA NA MD − 282.48 min (−404.73, −160.23) 10.99
 Total induction-to-delivery time 4 NA NA MD −107.98 min (− 332.73, + 116.78) 67.06
 Mean hospital cost per womanb 2 NA NA MD $144.83 (− 819.44, + 1109.10) 37.52
  1. Bold type indicates statistically significant difference between arms
  2. NA not applicable, RR risk ratio, MD mean difference, CI confidence intervals
  3. aThe case of perinatal mortality occurred for a woman who was scheduled for an outpatient induction, but did not require ripening as she entered laboured spontaneously
  4. bCosts are expressed in 2012 Australian dollars