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Table 2 Application of the ICD-PM to determine causes of stillbirth at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria, 2010–2018

From: Applying the WHO ICD-PM classification system to stillbirths in a major referral Centre in Northeast Nigeria: a retrospective analysis from 2010-2018

  M1
Complications of placenta, cord, etc.
M2
Maternal complications of pregnancy
M3
other complications of labour & delivery
M4
Maternal medical & surgical conditions
M5
No maternal condition
Total (%)
Antepartum Death
A1: Congenital malformations, and chromosomal abnormalities 0 7 0 2 2 11 (3.0)
A2: Infection 0 0 0 1 0 1 (0.3)
A3: Antepartum hypoxia 4 2 0 23 6 35 (9.6)
A4: Other specified antepartum disorder 0 1 0 0 0 1 (0.3)
A5: Disorder related to fetal growth 22 11 0 144 30 206 (56.7)
A6: Antepartum death of unspecified cause 4 6 0 83 17 110 (30.1)
Total n = (%) 30 (8.2) 27 (7.4) 0 (0.0) 253 (69.3) 55 (15.1) 365 (100.0)
Intrapartum Death
I1: Congenital malformations, and chromosomal abnormalities 1 7 8 3 1 20 (5.1)
I2: Birth trauma 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0.0)
I3: Acute intrapartum event 10 3 17 8 3 41 (10.3)
I4: Infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0.0)
I5: Other specified intrapartum event 0 0 0 0 0 0 (0.0)
I6: Disorder related to fetal growth 87 7 26 31 5 156 (39.5)
I7: Intrapartum of unspecified cause 83 3 61 24 7 178 (45.1)
Total n = (%) 181 (45.8) 20 (5.1) 112 (28.3) 66 (16.7) 16 (4.1) 395 (100.0)
Grand Total N = (%) 211 (27.8) 47 (6.2) 112 (14.7) 319 (41.9) 71 (9.4) 760 (100.0)