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Table 1 Summary of characteristics in studies into a meta-analysis

From: Thyroid dysfunction in Iranian pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ref. First author, Published Year Year Place Number GAa Method Criteria Quality score
[17] Naghshineh E, 2012 2010–11 Isfahan 1057 NR NR Hypothyroidism: TSH > 2.50 mIU/L 7
[18] Mansourian AR, 2010 2007–08 Gorgan 120 First trimester ELISA method for TSH Hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.32 mIU/L 7
[19] Naderi T, 2012 2010 Kerman 620 < 20 week ELISA method for TSH and fT4 Clinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 4 mIU/L; subclinical hypothyroidism: 2 < TSH < 4 mIU/L and FT4 < 0.07 ng/dL 8
[20] Dehghani Zahedani M, 2010 2007–08 BandarAbbas 608 All trimester RIA method for TSH and ELISA method for Anti-TPO Ab clinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 3.5 mIU/L and FT4 < 1.3 ng/dL; subclinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 3.5 mIU/L and FT4 > 1.3 ng/dL; hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.3 mIU/L and FT4 > 4.6 ng/dL; TPOAb positive: >  75 IU/mL 8
[21] Borzouei Sh, 2019 2015–16 Hamadan 852 First trimester RIA method for T4, IRMA for TSH and ELISA for anti-Anti-TPO Ab Clinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 2.5 mIU/L and low FT4 or TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L; subclinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 2.5 mIU/L and normal FT4; subclinical hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.1 mIU/L and normal (FT4 and FT3); subclinical hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.1 mIU/L and high (FT4 or FT3); Anti-TPO Ab positive: >  40 IU/mL 7
[22] Rahmatelahi M, 2016 2016–17 Shahrood 369 < 20 week NR Clinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 4 mIU/L with low FT4; Subclinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 4 mIU/L with normal FT4; clinical hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.4 mIU/L and elevated FT4; subclinical hyperthyroidism: TSH level < 0.4 mIU/L and with normal FT4 7
[23] Saki F, 2014 2011–12 Shiraz 586 15–18 week ECL method for TSH and T4 Clinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 3 mIU/L and low FT4 or TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L; 3 < TSH < 10 mIU/L and normal FT4; clinical hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.2 mIU/L and elevated FT4 or TSH < 0.1; subclinical hyperthyroidism: 0.1 ≥ TSH ≥ 0.2 mIU/L and normal FT4 8
[24] Lotfalizadeh M, 2017 2012–13 Mashhad 1000 First trimester RIA method for TSH and ELISA method for FT4 Hypothyroidism: TSH > 3 mIU/L 7
[25] Yassaee F, 2014 2008–12 Tehran 3158  NR CLIA method for TSH and T4 Clinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester or TSH > 3 mIU/L in the second or third trimester, with normal FT4 (0.8–1.7 ng/dL); TSH > 2.5 mIU/L and FT4 < 0.8 ng/dL 8
[26] Mehran L, 2013 2004–06 Tehran 299 All trimester RIA method for of TT4 and TT3 and IRMA method for TSH Anti-TPO Ab: >  40 IU/mL 8
[27] Moradi S, 2013 2012 Tehran 584 All trimester IRMA for TSH and by RIA for FT4, T4, T3,T3RU and anti-TPO The reference range for TSH is 0.2–2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester and 0.3–3.0 mIU/L in the third trimester. 9
[15] Nazarpour S, 2016 2013–14 Tehran 1480 NR RIA and IRMA methods T4 for TSH Clinical hypothyroidism: 5 < TSH < 10 mIU/L and FT4 <1 ng/dL or TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L; subclinical hypothyroidism: 2.5 < TSH < 10 mIU/L and 1 < FT4 < 4.5 ng/dL; clinical hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.02 mIU/L and FT4 > 4.5 ng/dL; subclinical hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.02 mIU/L and 1< FT4 < 4.5 ng/dL; Anti-TPO Ab positive: > 50 mIU/L 8
[28] Kianpour M, 2019 2017 Isfahan 418 First trimester NR hypothyroidism: TSH > 2.5 mIU/L; hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.1 mIU/L; Anti-TPO Ab positive: >  60 mIU/L 8
[29] Taghavi M, 2009 2006–08 Mashhad 500 First trimester RIA method for TSH, FT4 and FT3 TSH level > 4 mIU/L and reduced FT4 concentration as clinical hypothyroidism; TSH level > 4 mIU/L and normal serum FT4 concentration as clinical hypothyroidism; TSH level < 0.4 mIU/L and elevated FT4 concentration as clinical hyperthyroidism 8
[30] Nazarpour S, 2018 2013–16 Tehran 1843 First trimester RIA method for T4 and IRMA method for TSH and IEMA method for Anti-TPO Ab Clinical hyperthyroidism: TSH < 0.1 mIU/L and FT4 > 4.5 ng/dL; clinical hypothyroidism: TSH > 10 mIU/L or TSH > 2.5 mIU/L and FT4I < 1 ng/dL; subclinical hypothyroidism: elevated TSH (2.5–10 mIU/L) and normal FT4I (1–4.5 ng/dL); Anti-TPO Ab-positive: >  50 mIU/L 9
[31] Zangeneh M, 2015 2011–12 Kermanshah 1200 < 16 week ELISA method Reference renege for TSH is 0.27–4.2 mIU/L and for FT4I is 5.13–14.6 7
[32] Maleki N, 2014 2011–3 Bushehr 313 24–28 week RIA method for FT4 and FT3 Reference renege in the first, second and third trimesters for TSH 0.1–2.5 mIU/L, 0.2–3.0 mIU/L; and 0.3–3.0 mIU/L, respectively. 7
[33] Sarkhail P, 2016 2004–06 Tehran 120 All trimester RIA method for TT4 and TT3 and IRMA for TSH Reference renege in the first, second and third trimesters are TSH (0.2–3.9, 0.5–4.1, and 0.6–4.1 mIU/l); TT4 (8.2–18.5, 10.1–20.6, and 9–19.4 ≥ g/dL); and TT3 (137–278, 154–327, and 137–323 ng/dL), respectively. 7
[34] Mellati Ali Avesti SF, 2003 2002 Zanjan 500 First trimester IRMA method for TSH and RIA method for FT4 NR 6
  1. NR Not reported, TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone, mIU/L Milli-international units per litre, T3 triiodothyronine, T4  Thyroxine,GA Gestational age, ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RIA Radioimmunoassay, IRMA Immunoradiometric assay, CLIA Chemiluminescent immunoassay, IEMA immunoenzymometric assay, anti-TPO Ab anti-thyroperoxidase antibody