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Table 3 Results of primary and subgroup meta-analyses by outcome

From: A systematic review and time-response meta-analysis of the optimal timing of elective caesarean sections for best maternal and neonatal health outcomes

Meta-analyses Studies References Patients n Shape of association Risk ratio 95% CI I2
NICU admission all 14 [25, 37, 39, 51, 52, 54,55,56, 60, 62, 63, 65, 68, 69] 898,272 Linear dose-responsea 0.63 0.56–0.71 95.4
Neonatal death 4 [37, 40, 62, 65] 533,880 U-Shapeb < 39: 0.59
≥39: 2.09
0.43–0.83
1.18–3.70
77.5
Respiratory morbidity 9 [51, 53, 55, 57, 58, 61, 64, 65, 68] 57,693 Linear dose-responsea 0.64 0.51–0.79 95.2
Hospitalization ≥5 days 5 [38, 62, 65, 68, 69] 59,331 U-Shapeb < 39 0.52
≥39 2.00
0.36–0.75
1.40–2.86
96.2
Sepsis 4 [37, 52, 65, 68] 42,381 U-Shapeb < 39 0.55
≥39 3.57
0.44–0.67
1.87–6.78
21.8
Hypoglycemia 6 [25, 38, 60, 65, 68, 69] 46,367 Linear dose-responsea 0.84 0.79–0.91 0.0
Apgar Score < 7 5 [39, 56, 60, 65, 69] 805,274 Linear dose-responsea 0.90 0.69–1.17 65.7
Jaundice 5 [56, 60, 65, 68, 69] 32,109 Linear dose-responsea 0.71 0.66–0.77 53.7
Respiratory distress syndrome 5 [37, 59, 60, 65, 69] 43,888 Linear dose-responsea 0.60 0.54–0.67 45.0
Transient tachypnea of the newborn 5 [37, 55, 59, 60, 65] 40,766 Linear dose-responsea 0.68 0.54–0.86 84.1
Pneumothorax 4 [44, 59, 60, 67] 25,121 Binary (37 + 38 WG vs. ≥39 WG)c 0.99 0.03–39.19 72.0
Maternal hysterectomy 2 [37, 52] 18,662 Binary (37 + 38 WG vs. ≥39 WG)c 1.10 0.03–39.35 0.0
Maternal blood transfusion 2 [37, 60] 15,162 Binary (37 + 38 WG vs. ≥39 WG)c 1.21 0.02–65.67 30.0
Meta-analyses of subgroups
 NICU admission only ERCS 4 [37, 39, 54, 60] 792,107 Linear dose-responsea 0.66 0.65–0.67 0.0
 NICU death only repeat CS 2 [37, 40] 497,917 U-Shapeb < 39 0.67
≥39 1.68
0.51–0.87
1.07–2.65
0.0
  1. NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit; WG Week of gestation
  2. a Starting at 37 WG, RR for each additional WG
  3. b Starting at 39 WG, RR for each fewer WG and RR for each additional WG
  4. c Comparison of two timeframes; 37 + 38 WG = 37 + (0–6) + 38 + (0–6), 39 WG = 39 + 0