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Table 2 Risk of bias assessment in cohort studies

From: A systematic review and time-response meta-analysis of the optimal timing of elective caesarean sections for best maternal and neonatal health outcomes

Study Outcome Bias due to confounding Bias in selection of participants into the study Bias in classification of interventions Bias due to deviations from intended interventions Bias due to missing data Bias in measurement of outcomes Bias in selection of the reported result Overall bias
Alderdice et al. 2005 [51] NICU S C L L NI S L C
Respiratory outcomes S C L L NI M L C
Bailit et al. 2010 [52] NICU S S L L NI S L S
Sepsis S S L L NI M L S
(M) Hysterectomy S S L L NI L L S
Balchin et al. 2008 [53] Respiratory outcomes S C L L NI M L C
Brookfield et al. 2017 [36] Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Chiossi et al. 2013 [37] NICU, Apgar score S S L L NI S L S
Death S S L L NI L L S
Respiratory outcomes, sepsis S S L L NI M L S
(M) Death, hysterectomy S S L L NI L L S
(M) Bleeding S S L L NI S L S
Clark et al. 2009 [54] NICU S S L L NI S L S
Doan et al. 2014 [44] NICU, Apgar Score, jaundice S S L L NI S L S
Death, hypoglycemia S S L L NI L L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Farchi 2010 Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Finn et al. 2016 [55] NICU S S L L NI S L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Gawlik et al. 2015 [43] NICU, Apgar score S S L L NI S L S
Graziosi et al. 1998 [56] NICU, jaundice S S L L NI S L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Hansen et al. 2008 [57] Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Many et al. 2006 [58] Respiratory outcomes S C L L NI M L C
Matsuo et al. 2008 [59] Respiratory outcomes S C L L NI M L C
McAlister et al. 2013 [45] NICU S C L L NI S L C
Melamed et al. 2014 [60] NICU, Apgar score, jaundice S S L L NI S L S
Death, hypoglycemia S S L L NI L L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
(M) Hysterectomy S S L L NI L L S
(M) bleeding S S L L NI S L S
Morrison et al. 1995 [61] Respiratory outcomes S C L L NI M L C
Nakashima et al. 2014 [41] NICU, jaundice S S L L NI S L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Hypoglycemia, sepsis S S L L NI L L S
Nir et al. 2012 [46] NICU, Apgar score, jaundice S S L L NI S L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Hypoglycemia S S L L NI L L S
Parikh et al. 2014 [62] NICU S S L L NI S L S
Death S S L L NI L L S
Resende 2015 NICU S S L L NI S L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Hypoglycemia S S L L NI L L S
Terada et al. 2014 [50] Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Tita et al. 2009 [38] NICU S S L L NI S L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Hypoglycemia, sepsis S S L L NI L L S
Tracy et al. 2007 [63] NICU S S L L NI S L S
Van d. Berg et al. 2001 [64] NICU S C L L NI S L C
Respiratory outcomes S C L L NI M L C
Vidic 2016 NICU, Apgar score, jaundice S S L L NI S L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Hypoglycemia S S L L NI L L S
Vilchez et al. 2014 [39] NICU, Apgar score S S L L NI S L S
Vilchez et al. 2015 [40] Death S S L L NI L L S
Wilmink et al. 2010 [65] NICU, Apgar score, jaundice S S L L NI S L S
Death, hypoglycemia, sepsis S S L L NI L L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Wilmink et al. 2012 [66] NICU, Apgar score S S L L NI S L S
Death, hypoglycemia, sepsis S S L L NI L L S
Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Yamazaki et al. 2003 [42] Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Hypoglycemia S S L L NI L L S
Zanardo et al. 2004, two publications [48, 49] Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
Zanardo et al. 2007 [67] Respiratory outcomes S S L L NI M L S
  1. Risk of bias assessment according to ROBINS-I tool. The seven bias domains are individually assessed for each study. The evaluation options are: L Low; M Moderate; S Serious; C Critical; NI No Information. Respiratory outcomes include all respiratory outcomes measured. Outcomes were summarized according to their risk of bias assessment
  2. (M): Maternal outcomes