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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: A systematic review and time-response meta-analysis of the optimal timing of elective caesarean sections for best maternal and neonatal health outcomes

Study Study type Setting Recruiting period n Week of gestation ≥1 C-Section
Alderdice et al. 2005 [51] Cohort study Northern Ireland, multicentric 2001–2002 2553 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 No
Bailit et al. 2010 [52] Cohort study USA, multicentric 2002–2008 3959 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 No
Balchin et al. 2008 [53] Cohort study England, multicentric 1988–2000 20,891 37, 38, 39, 40 No
Brookfield et al. 2017 [36] Cohort study USA, multicentric, see Tita 2009, Chiossi 2013 1999–2002 15,602 37, 38, 39, 40, ≥41 Yes
Chiossi et al. 2013 [37] Cohort study USA, multicentric, see Tita 2009, Brookfield 2017 1999–2002 14,865 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 Yes
Clark et al. 2009 [54] Cohort study USA, multicentric 2007 1851 37, 38, ≥39 Both
Doan et al. 2014 [44] Cohort study Australia,1 center 1998–2009 14,447 37–38, 39–41 No
Farchi 2010 Cohort study Italy, multicentric 2003–2005 13,329 37, 38, 39, 40–41 Yes
Finn et al. 2016 [55] Cohort study Ireland, 1 center 2008–2012 4242 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 No
Gawlik et al. 2015 [43] Cohort study Germany, 1 center 2006–2011 503 37, 38–40 Yes
Glavind 2013 RCT Denmark, multicentric 2009–2011 1274 38, 39 No
Graziosi et al. 1998 [56] Cohort study Netherlands, 1 center 1990–1995 272 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 No
Hansen et al. 2008 [57] Cohort study Denmark, 1 center 1998–2006 2687 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 No
Many et al. 2006 [58] Cohort study Israel, − 278 38, 39, 40, 41 No
Matsuo et al. 2008 [59] Cohort study Japan, 1 center 1994–2005 364 37, 38, ≥39 No
McAlister et al. 2013 [45] Cohort study USA, multicentric 2008–2009 4125 37–38, 39–41 No
Melamed et al. 2014 [60] Cohort study Israel, 1 center 2010–2011 377 38, 39 ≥2
Morrison et al. 1995 [61] Cohort study England, 1 center 1985–1993 2341 37, 38, 39, 40, ≥41 No
Nakashima et al. 2014 [41] Cohort study Japan, 1 center 2006–2012 684 37, 38 No
Nir et al. 2012 [46] Cohort study Israel, 1 center 2007–2009 1050 37–38, ≥39 No
Parikh et al. 2014 [62] Cohort study USA, multicentric 2008–2011 14,613 37, 38, ≥39 No
Resende 2014 Cohort study Portugal, 1 center 2003–2013 3123 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 No
Terada et al. 2014 [50] Cohort study Japan, 1 center 2006–2013 1936 37, 38, 39–40, 41 No
Tita et al. 2009 [38] Cohort study USA, multicentric, see Chiossi 2013, Brookfield 2017 1996–2006 13,258 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 Yes
Tracy et al. 2007 [63] Cohort study Australia, multicentric 1999–2002 43,059 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 No
Van den Berg et al. 2001 [64] Cohort study Netherlands, 1 center 1994–1998 324 37, 38, ≥39 No
Vidic 2016 Cohort study Slovenia, multicentric 2002–2012 7364 37, 38, 39, 40, ≥41 No
Vilchez et al. 2014 [39] Cohort study USA, multicentric, see Vilchez 2015 2004–2008 785,340 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 Yes
Vilchez et al. 2015 [40] Cohort study USA, multicentric, see Vilchez 2014 2004–2008 483,052 37, 38, 39, 40, 41 Yes
Wilmink et al. 2010 [65] Cohort study Netherlands, multicentric 2000–2006 20,973 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 No
Wilmink et al. 2012 [66] Cohort study Netherlands, multicentric, twins 2000–2007 4557 35, 36, 37, ≥38 No
Yamazaki et al. 2003 [42] Cohort study Japan, 1 center 1998–2000 96 37, 38 No
Zanardo et al. 2004, two publications [48, 49] Cohort study Italy, 1 center 1998–2000 1284 37–38,39–41 No
Zanardo et al. 2007 [67] Cohort study Italy, multicentric 2002–2003 9988 37, 38, 39, 40–41 + 6 No
  1. ≥1 C-Section refers to studies including women who had at least one caesarean section before